Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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MARTIN DE MOUSSY, Jean Antoine Victor (mar-ta, ng), French physician, born in Moussy le Vieux, 26 June, 1810; died in Bourg la Reine, near Paris, 26 March, 1869. He went in 1841 to Rio de Janeiro, and in 1842 to Montevideo, where he practised his profession with success. Having become rich, he abandoned medicine, and founding an astronomical observatory, which he afterward presented to the city, he made, during ten years, valuable observations on atmospheric currents. In 1846, during the siege of Montevideo by Rosas and Oribe, by his suggestion, the foreign residents formed a National guard divided in two legions, the French under Colonel Thiebaut, and the Italians and other foreigners under Garibaldi. Martin was elected physician of both legions, which rendered valuable services to the city in preserving order and checking riots till the peace of 1852, when they dissolved. Martin then began an exploration of the river Plate, which the government had intrusted to him, and from 1855 till the end of 1858 travelled through South America, making a survey of Plate, Uruguay, and Paraguay rivers. In 1859 he returned to France on account of failing health. An account of his travels was published at the expense of the Argentine government. His works include "Description gdo-graphique et statistique de la conf6ddration Argentine" (10 vols., Paris, 1860-'5): "Essai sur la topographie physique et medicale du d@artement et de la ville de Monteviddo" (2 vols., 1861); and " Une annde dans les Cordilli@es des Andes de Chaco et de Copiapo" (1865).
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