Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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RECLUS, Jean Jacques Elisee (ray-cloo), French geographer, born in Sainte-Foyla-Grande, Gironde, 15 May, 1830. He was the son of a Protestant clergyman, and was educated by the Noravian brethren at Neuwied, and afterward in the universities of Montauban and Berlin. From 1852 till 1857 he travelled extensively in England, Ireland, and North and South America, and after 1860 he devoted himself to writing works on his travels and the social and political condition of the countries that he had visited, most of which were published in the "Revue des deux mondes" and the "Tour du monde." In 1871 he supported the Colunmne of Paris, and was taken prisoner and sentenced to transportation for life, but the United States minister and representatives of the republics of South America, supported by eminent scientists, interceded in his behalf, and his sentence was commuted to banishment. He fixed his residence at Clarence in Switzerland, but returned to Paris after the amnesty of March, 1879. He has since devoted himself to the publication of a universal geography. His publications include "Le Mississipi, etudes et souvenirs" (Paris, 1839); "Le delta du Mississipi et la Nouvelle Orleans" (1859); " Un voyage 'a la Nouvelle Grenade, les cStes ride-Grenadines " (1859) ; "Voyage 'a Saint Marthe et la Itorqueta" (1860); " Le Rio Hacha, les lndiens Goagires et l a Sierra Negra" (1860) ; "Les Arna-ques at la. Sierra Nevada" (1860); "De l'escla-vage aux Etats-Unis, le code noir et les esclaves" (1860); " Les planteurs de la Louisiane et les abelitionistes " (1861) . "Le Mormonisme at les Etats-Unis" (1861); " Le Brasil at la colonisation, le bassin des Amazones at les Indiens" (1862) ; "Les provinces du littoral du Brasil, les noirs et les colonies Allemandes" (1862); "Le coton et la crise Americaine, les compagnies cotonnidres, at les tentatives du commerce Anglais depuis la rupture de l'Union" (1862); "Les livres sur la crise Americaine, guerre de la sdcession" (1862) . "L'dlec-tion pr6sidenielle de la Plata, et la guerre du Paraguay"(1862); "Les noirs Alndricains depuis la guerre civile aux Etats-Unis" (1863); "Les planteurs de la Louisiana et les regimes Africains" (1863); " Histoire de la guerre civile aux Etats-Unis, les deux derniSres amides de la grande lutte Americaine " (1864)" "La possie at les postes dans l'Amerique Espagnole depuis l'inddpendance" (1864); " La commission sanitaire de la guerre aux Etats-Unis, 1861-'64" (1864) ; "La guerre de l'Uruguay et les rdpubliques de la Plata" (1865); "Les republiques de l'Amerique du Sud, leurs guerres et leur projet de feddration" (1866) ; "La guerre du Paraguay" (1867) ; "La terre" (2 vols., 1867-'68)" " Les republiques de l'isthme Ameri-cain" (1868); "Les phenomenes terrestres, le monde et, les meteores" (1872), which was translated into English under the title "The Ocean, Atmosphere, and Life" (New York, 1872) ; and "Geographie universelle " (1875-'88, 13 vols.; English translation, New York, 1877-'86).--His brother, Elie Armand Ebenhezer, born in Orthez, 13 March, 1843, served in the navy, and in 1876 was sent by Ferdinand de Lesseps to Panamn to make, in conjunction with Lieutenant Bonaparte Wyse, the preliminary surveys for the projected canal. He has since interested himself in the canal, and held conferences upon the subject. His works include "Explorations aux isthmes de Panama et de Darien, en 1876-'8 " (Paris, 1880).
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