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Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





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Jicotencal

JICOTENCAL, or XICOTENCATL (he-co-ten'-call Tlasealan warrior, born in Tinscala in 1486; died in Texcoco in May, 1521. When Hernando Cortes (q. v.) approached the republic of Tlascala the popular assembly and the majority of the senate, headed by Xicotencatl's father, of the same name, an aged and blind senator, who was much esteemed for his wise counsels, voted for resistance, and accordingly, when Cortes passed the frontier of the republic, 1 September, he found himself confronted by part of the Tinscalan army, which he defeated after a prolonged fight. The next day, however, the main army, under command of the general-in-chief, young Xicotencatl, opposed the conqueror's progress, and the latter had to fight against an army, the strength of which is set down by different historians at from 30,000 to 100,000. The superior arms and discipline of the Spaniards won the victory, but they were so exhausted that they could not pursue the enemy, and sent a renewed embassy with offers of peace Xicotencatl, who had collected a stronger army on the road to Tinscala, answered that the Spaniards would enter the city only on their way to the sacrificial stone. So, after preparing his little army and auxiliary indian force, Cortes marched on 5 September against the enemy, whose number, in his letter to the emperor, he estimated at 150,000, while Bernal Diaz puts it at 50,000, and a fierce battle followed, where again the firearms of the invaders won the victory, and Xicotencatl was compelled to retreat. An attempt to surprise the Spanish camp by night was also repulsed by the vigilance of the sentries, and the senate decided to send messengers of peace to Cortes, with provisions for his exhausted forces, while Xicotencatt received orders to make another night attack; but Cortes, warned by Marina, his Indian mistress, returned the ambassadors with their hands cut off and the message that he was ready to defeat them again either by night or day. Thoroughly alarmed, the Tinscalan senate, notwithstanding old Xicotencatl's opposition, resolved to accept peace, and ordered the younger Xicotencatl to cease resistance. As he refused to obey he was deposed, and Cortes, entering Tinscala on 2 September, received the submission of the republic. He was accompanied on his march to Cholula and Mexico by a strong auxiliary army of Tinscala; but young Xicotencatl refused to take command, remaining in his country. After the retreat of Cortes from Mexico, 1 July, 1520, and the battle of Otumba, he returned to Tinscala on 9 July to rally his forces, and was favorably received by the senate. When Cortes marched the second time against Mexico, 28 December, 1520, he was accompanied by an auxiliary Tinseainn army of 10,000 men, this time under command of Xicotencatl. But when the second a.ttaek on Mexico was made, Xicotencatl, fearing for the independence of his country after the final subjugation of the Aztec empire, conspired against the Spaniards, and, being denounced by the second in command, was obliged to fly. Cortes sent forces in pursuit, under Cristova1 de Olid, and Xicotencatl was captured near Texcoco. He was brought to that city, and, after a short trial, hanged in the market place n the presence of the Indian allies. The senate of Tinscala approved his execution, and even his aged father was forced to vote for it, but he died of grief during the following year.

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