Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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PEZUELA, Joaquin de la (pay-thoo-ay'-lah), viceroy of Peru, born in Naval, Aragon, in 1761; died in Madrid in 1830. He received his military instruction in the artillery college of Segovia, served in the siege of Gibraltar in 1782, and in 1793 in Navarre against the French revolutionary army. In 1805, with the rank of colonel, he went to Peru as sub-inspector of artillery, and as such he directed in 1808 the building of a powder-factory, which did good service during the revolution. He was promoted brigadier in 1811, and in 1813 major-general and commander-in-chief, immediately he began active operations against the invading Argentine army under General Belgrano, whom he de-feared at Viliapujio on 1 October, and at Ayohuma on 14 November In the following year he invaded Argentine territory, and on 29 November, 1815, routed General Rondeau at Sipisipe, in reward for which he was promoted lieutenant-general and provisional viceroy. In April, 1816, he gave up his command, and on 7 July took charge of the government at Lima. He was appointed full viceroy, 20 March, 1817, and in December of the same year sent an unsuccessful expedition under his son-in-law, Mariano Osorio (q. v, .), for the reconquest of Chili. In 1820 Pezuela began to prepare means of defence against the threatened invasion of Peru by San Martin's army. The latter landed in Pisco on 8 September, and Pezuela sent a commission to negotiate a treaty. After the viceroy had proclaimed the liberal constitution of Cadiz on 17 September, a meeting of commissioners took place at Miraflores, but the negotiations produced no result, and on 4 October hostilities were opened. Pezuela's position in Lima soon became critical, but he refused to evacuate the capital as he was advised by a council of war, and sent General Canterae against the enemy; but General La Serna, who had been appointed general-in-chief, refused to co-operate. There was a mutiny on 29 January, 1821, and Pezuela was forced by his officers to resign the viceroyalty in favor of La Serna. On 29 June of that year he left Callao in an American schooner for Rio Janeiro, and returned thence to Spain. He was granted the title of Marquis of Villuma, and appointed in 1825 captain-general of New Castile, which post he held at his death.--His son, Juan Manuel, Marquis Pezuela and Count of Cheste, Spanish soldier, born in Lima, Peru, in May, 1810, went with his parents to Spain and entered the army as a boy. He took part in the first Carlist war on the side of the government, and was brevetted brigadier-general in 1838. He was captain-general of Andalusia, governor-general of Porto Rico, was brevetted lieutenant-general, and in 1853 appointed governor-general of the island of Cuba. During his administration he took stringent measures to suppress the slave-trade, and this, together with his well-known anti-slavery ideas and his measures for the relief of the negro race in Cuba, made him an object of hate to the slave-owners, at whose request the home government recalled him in December, 1854. While he was in Havana, Pezuela began a metrical translation of Dante's "Divina Commedia" and Tasso's "Gerusalemme Liberata," which afterward were published at Madrid. There he published also his translation of Ariosto's "Orlando Furioso" and Camoen's "Lusiadas," and a lyrical poem, "El Cerco de Zamora." He is now president of the Spanish Academia de la lengua.
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