Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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SANBORN, John Benjamin, soldier, born in Epsom, New Hampshire, 5 December, 1826. He was educated at Dartmouth, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in July, 1854. In December of that year he removed to St. Paul, Minnesota, where he has since resided, engaged in the practice of the law when not in the public service. As adjutantgeneraland quartermaster-general of Minnesota he organized and sent to the field five regimentsof infantry, a bat-talion of cavalry, and two batteries of artillery in 1861, and in the spring of 1862 left the state as colonel of the 4th Minnesota volunteers, remaining in active service in the field to the close of the war. At Iuka, his first battle, he commanded the leading brigade and was commended in the official report.. About 600 of his men, out. of 2,200, were killed and wounded in little more than an hour. For this he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, but the senate allowed this appointment to lapse, and after the Vicksburg campaign, on the recommendation of General McPherson and General Grant, he was again commissioned to date from 4 August, 186& This appointment was confirmed by the senate. He participated in the battles of Corinth, Port Gibson. Raymond, Jackson, and Champion Hills, and in the assault and siege of Vicksburg. He was designated to lead the advance into the town after the surrender, and superintended the paroling of the prisoners of war and passing them beyond the lines. This honor was conferred on account of his gallant conduct and that of his command, especially at the battle of Jackson. After October he commanded the district of southwest Missouri and a brigade and division of cavalry in the field in October and Novem-bet, 1864, and fought the actions of Jefferson City, Booneville, Independence, Big Blue, Little Blue, Osage, Marias des-Cygnes, and Newtonia. He was never defeated by the enemy, and never failed of complete suocess except in the assault of 22 May at Vicksburg. He conducted a campaign against the Indians of the southwest in the summer and autumn of 1865, opened all the lines of communication to the territories of Colorado and New Mexico, and terminated all hostilities with the Comanche, Kiowa, Cheyenne, Arapahoe, and Apaches of the upper Arkansas, by the treaties that he concluded at the mouth of the Little Arkansas in October, 1865. After this, in the winter of 1865-'6, under the direction of President Johnson, he adjusted amicably the difficulties growing out of the war between the Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks, and Seminoles and their slaves, and declared the slaves of these tribes free. In 1867 General Sanborn was designated by congress as one of an Indian peace commission, and with the other commissioners negotiated several treaties which have remained in force and. in connection with the report of that commission, have had a great influence in the amelioration of the condition of the Indians. He has been a member of the house and senate of Minnesota on various occasions.
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