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Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





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John Cleaveland

CLEAVELAND, John, clergyman, born in Canterbury, Connecticut, 22 April, 1722; died in Ipswich, Massachusetts, 22 April, 1799. He was expelled from Yale College in 1744 for attending a Separatist meeting, but received his degree twenty years after as an act of redress. He preached to a Separatist society in Boston, but, declining to settle there, became pastor of the parish of Chebacco in Ipswich, now the town of Essex. He was chaplain of Col. Bag-ley's regiment at Ticonderoga in 1758, and at Louisburg in 1759, and served in that capacity with the Revolutionary army at Cambridge in 1775, and in Connecticut and New York the year following. He published a "Narrative of the Work of God at Chebacco in 1763-'4," describing a revival of religion in his congregation; an "Essay to Defend Christ's Sacrifice and Atonement against the Aspersions cast on the Same by Dr. Mayhew" (1763); a "Reply to Dr. Mavhew's Letter of Reproof" (1765); and a "Treatise on Infant Baptism" (1784).--His grandson, Parker, born in Rowley, Massachusetts, 15 January, 1780; died in Brunswick, Maine, 15 October, 1858 (whose father was a physician of Rowley, a regimental surgeon in the revolution, and frequently a member of the Massachusetts legislature), was graduated at Harvard in 1799, taughtschool at Haverhill, Massachusetts, and York, Maine, and studied law. He was appointed a tutor of mathematics at Harvard in 1803, and in 1805 was called to Brunswick as the first professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in Bowdoin. He applied himself especially to the new sciences of chemistry and mineralogy, and in 1816 published an elementary treatise on Mineralogy and Geology" (Boston; 2d ed., 1822; 3d ed., 1856), based on the system of Brongniart and Hauy, and containing minute descriptions of minerals and original information regarding their localities in the White mountains and other districts explored by him. He lectured on chemistry before popular audiences in Hallowell, Portland, and Portsmouth, New Hampshire, during his winter vacations in 1818-'22. When the medical school was established in 1820 he became lecturer on chemistry, dean of the faculty, and librarian. In 1828 his chair in the College was changed to chemistry, mineralogy, and natural philosophy. He stood first among the mineralogists of the country, gathered a large collection of specimens for the College, was a lucid lecturer, and continued to teach with success to the very day of his death. But, since he would not travel by steam and took little interest in recent geological discoveries and discussions, his early fame as a mineralogist was eclipsed by the scientific services of geological explorers. He declined the professorship of mineralogy at Harvard, offered him after his reputation was first established by the publication of his manual, and in 1839 refused the presidency of Bowdoin.--Another grandson, Nehemiah, born in Topsfield, Massachusetts, in 1796" died in 1877 (a son of Dr. Nehemiah, a physician of Topsfield), was prepared for College in the family of his cousin, Parker, graduated at Bowdoin in 1813, began the study of theology at Andover, and taught school at Gorham, Maine He had charge of Preble street school, Portland, in 1816-'7, was then, for three years, a tutor at Bowdoin, from 1821 till 1839 was preceptor of Dummer academy, Byfield, and afterward professor of ancient languages at Phillips Exeter academy. He was head of the high school at Lowell, Massachusetts, and from 1842 till 1848 principal of a school for young ladies in Brooklyn, New York He was the author of a descriptive and historical account of Greenwood cemetery, Brooklyn ; "The Flowers Personified," a translation from the French; and a " History of Bowdoin College, with Biographical Sketches of its Graduates," left unfinished by him, but completed by A. S. Packard (Boston, 1882). Another grandson, brother of Nehemiah, Elisha Lord, clergyman, born in Tops-field, Massachusetts, 25 April, 1806; died in New Haven, Connecticut, 16 February, 1866, was prepared for College at Dummer academy, Newbury, then under the care of his brother, and graduated at Bowdoin in 1829, and at Andover theological seminary in 1832, and the same year was licensed to preach. In July, 1833, he was ordained pastor of the 3d Congregational church of New Haven. Dr. Cleaveland opposed the new-school views of Drs. Taylor and Fitch. In November, 1864, he went to Europe, and during his tour explained the sentiments and resources of the northern states in an assembly of French Protestant pastors in Paris, and before the English Congregational union in London.

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