Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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CRUGER, John, colonial mayor of New York, born there, 18 July 1710; died 27 December 1792. He early turned his attention to trade, and became eminent as a shipping merchant. Like his father, who was mayor from 1739 till 1744, he filled important political offices. In 1754 he was chosen alderman of the dock ward, and from 1756 till 1765 was mayor. He was elected to the general assembly in 1759, and in 1761 Mr. Cruger was a leading member of the committee on correspondence, and was associated in the drafting of memorials to the king, the lords, and the commons, "relative to the dangers which threaten the colonies to be taxed by laws to be passed in Great Britain."
Again in 1769 he was sent to represent New York City in the last colonial assembly, and was unanimously chosen speaker, which office he held until 1775. He was the first president of the New York chamber of commerce in 1768. In 1775, with thirteen other members of the assembly, he addressed a letter to General Thomas Gage, urging, "that no military force might land or be stationed in this province." During the Revolutionary war he retired to Kinderhook, but, after peace was declared, returned to New York.
--His brother, Henry Cruger, merchant, born in 1702; died in Bristol, England, 8 February 1780, was a member of the assembly and council of New York, and settled as a merchant in Bristol, England, of which City he was mayor at the time of his death.
-Henry Cruger, son of the preceding, politician, born in New York in 1739; died there, 24 April 1827, established himself in trade, with his father, in Bristol, and succeeded him as mayor in 1781. He was elected to parliament as the colleague of Burke in 1774. and re-elected in 1784, and advocated on all occasions a conciliatory course toward his countrymen. He so severely retorted upon Colonel Grant, who said, in parliament, that the colonists would never dare to face an English army that the speaker called him to order. After the war he became a merchant in New York, and was elected to the state senate while yet a member of parliament.
--John Harris Cruger, brother of the preceding, British officer, born in New York City in 1738 ; died in London, 3 June 1807, succeeded his father as a member of the New York City council, was its mayor in 1764, and at the beginning of the Revolution was its chamberlain. He was a son-in-law of Colonel De Lancey, and commanded the 1st battalion of his loyalist corps. In June 1780, he was captured at a plantation in Belfast, Georgia, but was soon exchanged for Colonel John McIntosh. In September he made a forced march to Augusta, to relieve Colonel Browne, and arrived most opportunely. He distinguished himself at the battle of Eutaw Springs, where his corps formed the British centre. His defense of Ninety-Six, when attacked by Greene in May 1781, won great praise. His property was confiscated, and he went to England after the war.
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