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Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





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John Garland

GARLAND, John, soldier, born in Virginia in 1792; died in New York City, 5 June, 1861. He was appointed 1st lieutenant of infantry on 31 March, 1813, served through the war with" Great Britain, became a captain on 7 May, 1817, was made major by brevet in 1827, attained the full rank of major on 30 October, 1836, and that of lieutenant colonel on 27 November, 1839. He won distinction in the Florida war under General Worth, and served through the Mexican war, distinguishing himself in six battles, and commanding a brigade at Monterey and through General Scott's subsequent campaign. He was severely wounded at the taking of the City of Mexico. He was brevetted colonel for gallantry at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and brigadier-general for meritorious and gallant conduct at Contreras and Churubusco. He was promoted colonel on 9 May, 1861.--His cousin, Hugh A., lawyer, born in Nelson County, Virginia, 1 June, 1805; died in St. Louis, Missouri, 15 October, 1854, was graduated at Hampden Sidney College in 1825, was professor of Greek there for the next five years, and became afterward a successful lawyer, practicing in Mecklenburg County, Virginia He sat in the Virginia assembly for five years, and was chosen clerk of the National House of Representatives in 1838. At the opening of congress in 1839 he called the roll, as clerk of the last house, but omitted five Whigs, elected from New Jersey, whose seats were contested, thus securing a Democratic majority. A scene of uproar resulted, which was continued on succeeding days, until John Q. Adams was elected chairman pro tempore. In 1841 he settled on a farm near Petersburg, and engaged in mercantile business, by which he lost his property. In 1845 he removed to St. Louis, and resumed the practice of the law. He was the author of a " Life of John Randolph " (New York, 1850).--The son of Hugh A., Hugh A., lawyer, died at Franklin, Tennessee, 30 November, 1864, studied and practiced law in St. Louis, Missouri He joined the Confederate army, was made a colonel, participated in the actions between the forces of Generals flood and Thomas in middle Tennessee, and fell at Franklin, Tennessee, while leading his command. --The brother of Hugh A., Landon Ca bell, educator, born in Nelson County, Virginia, 21 March, 1810, was graduated at Hampden Sidney College in 1829. From 1830 to 1833 he was professor of chemistry in Washington College, Virginia In 1833 he became professor of physics, and in 1835 president of Randolph Macon College, which post he held till 1847. From 1847 till 1866 he filled the chair of mathematics and physics in the University of Alabama, of which he became president in 1855. He was next professor of physics and astronomy in the University of Mississippi till 1875, when he was chosen chancellor and professor of physics in Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee In 1875 he traveled through Europe to purchase the physical and astronomical apparatus of that University. He has contributed largely to the magazines of the southern Methodist Episcopal Church, and has published a treatise on" Trigonometry, Plane and Spherical" (Philadelphia, 1841).--Hugh A.'s nephew, Samuel, soldier, born in Lynchburg, Virginia, 16 December 1830; died at South Mountain, Maryland, 14 September, 1862, was educated at the Virginia military institute, was graduated in law from the University of Virginia in 1821, and practiced with success in Lynchburg. He was chosen captain of a volunteer company that was organized in 1859, after John Brown's raid, was commissioned a colonel by the governor of Virginia on the secession of the state, and was engaged at the first battle of Bull Run, at Drainsville, and at the battle of Williamsburg, where he was wounded. He was promoted brigadier-general, and when he had recovered from his wound sufficiently to take the field, was given the command of a North Carolina brigade, which formed part of General D. H. Hill's division. He was engaged in the battle of Seven Pines, the battles around Richmond, especially that of Gaines's Mill, the battle of Manassas, and led the van of Lee's army in the Maryland campaign, where he fell in the battle of South Mountain.

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