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Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor



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John (Johaness) Kelpius

KELPIUS, John, mystic philosopher, born in Siebenburgen, Transylvania, Germany, in 1673; died in Roxborough, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1708. He was of a wealthy family, and was educated at the University of Altdorf, where his preceptor, Dr. John Fabricius, selected him as his assistant in the authorship of a work in Latin. His native language was the German, but he was also acquainted with the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and English. He early devoted himself to theological studies and became a follower of Philip Jacob Spener, the founder of the sect called Pietists. While in London he met Jane Leade, the head of the Philadelphians, another mystic sect. Of course his peculiar views met with opposition, and although at this time there was a great spirit of inquiry all over the land, under the name of Quietism in the Roman church, and Pietism, Chiliasm, and Philadelphianism in the Protestant churches, the desire to live where religious liberty could be enjoyed led him and his followers to emigrate to the New World.

At the age of twenty-one years, with about forty others of like faith, he began his voyage to this country, 7 January, 1694, and after a dangerous and tempestuous journey reached Philadelphia, 23 June, and next day went to Germantown, where the German emigrants and those from Holland had settled under the leadership of Francis Daniel Pastorius, the German jurist. Kelpius and his followers soon attracted much attention by their dress, their peculiar doctrines, and holy way of living. He afterward selected a spot on the banks of the Wissahickon, where in a small valley he built a hut or cave, and walled a spring of water, that is still known as "the hermit's spring." (Edit: After arriving in American, he and his followers built a Tabernacle on a high ridge overlooking the Wissahickon Valley, not in the valley of the banks of the creek. The hut or cell may or may not have been constructed by Kelpius (some believe it to be an 18th century springhouse). It is located on high ground, just below the site of the Tabernacle. "Many of his followers" did not follow Conrad Beissel to Ephrata, although Beissel came to the area in search of Kelpius and the community. source: The German Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania, Julius F. Sachse, 1895)

There they lived as an unbroken brotherhood for about ten years. They held religious services in the groves, and crowds of curious people assembled to hear the preaching of the hermits. It is said that they taught little children that were brought to them. They were called the "Society of the women in the wilderness," and their religions views were tinctured with the doctrines of Jacob Boehme, the Teutonic philosopher. Kelpius was a firm believer in the millennium, said it was near at hand, and told Alexander Maek, the Tanker preacher, that he should not die till he saw it. His Latin journal, kept during his voyage across the Atlantic, is still preserved in the Historical society of Pennsylvania. In it are copies of several letters in English and German, which he wrote to learned persons both in Europe and America. When Pastorius ceased to be the agent of the Frankfort company, Kelpius was chosen in his place, but it does not appear that he ever acted as such. Reference is made to Kelpius in "The Chronieon Ephratense," and it would seem that after his death many of his followers joined the Seventh Day Baptists at Ephrata, Pennsylvania (See BEISSEL, CONRAD.) Whittier, in "The Pennsylvania Pilgrim," speaks of the hermit as " Painful Kelpius from his hermit den By Wissahickon, maddest of good men."

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

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