Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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GARDNER, John Lane, soldier, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 1 August, 1793; died in Wilmington, Delaware, 19 February, 1869. He entered the army in 1812 as lieutenant of infantry, saw his first active service in Canada, and was wounded at the battle of La Colle Mill, 30 March, 1814, while serving under General James Wilkinson. After the war he was transferred to the artillery. In 1820-'30 he was assistant quartermaster-general, with the rank of captain, and in 1833 was brevetted major of artillery for ten years' faithful service. He served with his regiment during the Florida war, and was reported to the department as having shown "the utmost activity, skill, and intrepidity " at the battle of Wahoo Swamp, 21 November, 1832. He was promoted major in 1845, commanded his regiment throughout the Mexican war, was brevetted lieutenant colonel for service at the battle of Cerro Gordo, 18 April, 1847, and colonel at Contreras on 20 August, where he commanded the right column of attack. From 1842 till 1850 he was in command of the district of Florida, became lieutenant colonel in 1852, and some years later was stationed at Charleston harbor, where he was in command in 1860. Though mustering fewer than fifty men at Fort Moultrie, he effected an arrangement with Colonel Joseph P. Taylor, commissary-general, for six months' provisions, and announced his intention to defend the fort to the last extremity against the secessionists. Secretary of War John B. Floyd thereupon relieved him from command, and ordered him to report to General David E. Twiggs, in Texas. Major Robert Anderson succeeded to the command at Fort Moultrie, and on Christmas eve removed the garrison to Fort Sumter. In 1861 he was promoted colonel of the 2d artillery, and the next year was, by his own request, placed on the retired list, and employed in recruiting service. In 1865 he was brevetted brigadier-general "for long and faithful service."
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