Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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POLAND, John Scroggs, soldier, born in Princeton, Indiana, 14 October, 1836. He was graduated at the United States military academy in 1861, and appointed 1st lieutenant of the 2d infantry on 6 July, 1861. Subsequently he served with the Army of the Potomac, engaging in the battle of Bull Run, and with that army in the following campaigns, until after the battle of Gettysburg, when he was on duty in the defences of Washington. Meanwhile he had been promoted captain, and had received the brevets of major and lieutenant-colonel. In 1865 he was assigned to the United States military academy, where he remained for four years as assistant professor of geography, history, ethics, and drawing. During the ten years that followed he served principally on frontier duty, becoming, on 15 December, 1880, major of the 18th infantry, and in 1881-'6, he was chief of the department of law at the United States infantry and cavalry school in Leavenworth, Kansas, where he was also in charge in 1881-'3 of the department of military drawing. On 1 March, 1886, he was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 21st infantry. Colonel Poland has published" Digest of the Military Laws of the United States from 1861 to 1868" (Boston, 1868) and " The Conventions of Geneva of 1864 and 1868, and St. Petersburg International Commission " (Leavenworth, 1886).
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