Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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JOHNSON, John Smoke (Sakayenkwaraghton, or "The Disappearing Mist"), Mohawk chief, born in the Mohawk village, Canada West, 2 December, 1792; died there, 26 August, 1886. His middle name refers to the English translation of his Indian title. He was the leader of the Iroquois contingent, on the British side, during the war of 1812, and at its close the Six Nations and their allies bestowed on him the office of premier or "speaker of the grand Indian council." He was a man of singular force and purity of character, a gallant warrior, and gifted orator.--His son, George Henry Martin (Onwanonsyshon), Mohawk chief, born in Grand River reserve, near Brantford, Canada, 7 October, 1816; died there, 19 February, 1884, went to school in Brantford, and became a member of the family of Reverend Adam Elliot, aiding him in the translation of sermons. In 1840 he was appointed interpreter for the English church mission on the reserve. While thus engaged he became a chief, and was also appointed government interpreter for the Six Nations. Subsequently he was made warden of the reserve, and did much to free it from the law-breakers and liquor-vendors. In 1865, and again in 1873, he was assaulted and beaten, and he bore the marks of these attacks until his death. He erected on his farm a house that obtained for him the indian name of Onwanonsyshon ("He who has the great mansion"). One of his aims was to direct the agricultural industry of his tribe, and he established an agricultural society on the reserve.
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