Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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MARINHO, Jose Antonio (mah-reen'-yo), Brazilian educator, born in Salgado, 7 October, 1803; died in Rio Janeiro, 3 March, 1853. He was of mulatto parentage, and had many difficulties in obtaining an education. He intended to study for the ministry, but was refused at first because of his African descent. Later he was accepted by recommendation of the Marquis of Caravellas in 1820. In 1831 he was ordained priest, and in 1832 he obtained the chair of philosophy in the city of Ouro Preto. In 1839 he was appointed preacher to the imperial chapel, and in 1840 counsellor in ecclesiastical matters. He belonged to the most advanced Liberal party, and in 1835 and 1837 suffered as a friend of reforms. In 1842 he took part in the revolution of Minas, and, after the defeat of the insurgents in Santa Luzia, he was persecuted and took refuge in the country, where he wrote his " Historia da revolucao de Minas." In 1844 he returned, having obtained a pardon from the emperor. In 1845 he established a school in Rio Janeiro, where he introduced the newest educational methods. The fame of this institution brought many students from the empire and also from the Argentine Republic, Uruguay, and Paraguay, and he numbered among his pupils nearly all the Brazilians that have attained note in later years.
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