Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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GAMA, Jose Bernardo Fernandez, Brazilian historian, born in Pernambuco in 1802; died in Rio de Janeiro in 1852. In his youth he entered the army, participated in the constitutional revolution of Bahia, 10 February, 1821, and also in forcing the Portuguese troops to abandon Brazil, 15 February, 1822, and the subsequent declaration of independence at Ipiranga, 7 September, 1822. For the action of Bahia he was decorated with the military medal that was instituted in commemoration of that movement, and in 1837 received the order of the Cruceiro; but, as he was of humble family and had no friends in government circles, he never advanced above the rank of lieutenant of the staff, and as such was retired in 1842. He then gave up his time to historical researches, and published a work which established his name as a writer, "Memorias Historicas da Provincia de Pernambuco, precedidas de um ensaio topographico-historico" (4 vols., Pernambuco, 1844-'9). As he was too poor to have this work printed, the provincial assembly of Pernambuco authorized him, in 1843, to establish a quarterly lottery to the extent of fifteen contos de reis (about $7,500), the proceeds of which were to be invested in its publication.
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