Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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PEREIRA, Jose Clemente, Brazilian statesman, born in Castello Mendo, Portugal, 17 February, 1787; died in Rio Janeiro, 10 March, 1854. He was graduated in law at the University of Coimbra, and during the French invasion served in the Anglo-Lusitanian army under Wellington. In 1815 he went to Brazil and was appointed "Tuiz de fora" of the town of Nictheroy. He was elected to the senate, and presided over that body when the Portuguese garrison of Rio Janeiro rebelled, 5 June, 1821. He prevailed on the prince-regent to swear to the constitution that had been adopted by the Portuguese cortes, and to dismiss the ministry of Count dos Arcos, but when they demanded that a junta of nine deputies should be named to supervise the acts of the regent, Pereira firmly resisted and obtained the abandonment of this measure. In December, 1821, he proposed in the chamber that the prince should be requested to remain in Brazil, and on 9 January, 1822, at the head of an immense crowd, he presented the famous petition to the prince to disobey the decree of the cortes that he should leave for Portugal. After the declaration of Ypiranga, Pereira convoked the people of the capital, and on 12 October, 1822, the independence of Brazil was declared, and Pedro I. proclaimed emperor. Immediately afterward Pereira was accused of being a demagogue and anarchist, and after a rapid trial was exiled. He returned to his adopted country on 17 February, 1824, and was elected intend-ant-general, and afterward deputy for Rio Janeiro. He entered the cabinet, supplied Rio Janeiro with drinking-water by erecting fountains in different points, improved the orphan asylum, and built at the Praia Vermella a linatic asylum known as the Hospicio de D. Pedro II.
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