Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum
   You are in: Museum of History >> Hall of North and South Americans >> Jose de Galvez





American’s Four United Republics: Discovery-Based Curriculum

For more information go to Historic.us

 

Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor



Virtual American Biographies

Over 30,000 personalities with thousands of 19th Century illustrations, signatures, and exceptional life stories. Virtualology.com welcomes editing and additions to the biographies. To become this site's editor or a contributor Click Here or e-mail Virtualology here.



A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 





Click on an image to view full-sized

Jose de Galvez

GALVEZ, Jose de (gal'-veth), Marquis of Sonora, Spanish lawyer and statesman, born in Velez-Mallaga in 1729; died in Madrid in 1786. He was graduated in law at the University of Alcala de ltenares, and gained considerable distinction by his eloquence in the defense of several lawsuits. He became acquainted in Madrid with the French ambassador, Marquis de Duras, who engaged him as an assistant in the prosecution of claims at the Spanish court. There Galvez attracted the attention of Charles III.'s prime minister, the Marquis of Grimaldi, and became his private secretary. In 1764 he was appointed a member of the council of the Indies, and in 1771 sent on a mission to Mexico to settle difficulties that had arisen between the au-diencia and the proprietors of the mines regarding revenue. He soon arranged everything satisfactorily, introduced improvements into the administration, which saved several millions yearly to the government, and made several voyages into the interior to study the situation and the necessities of the country. He returned to Spain in 1774, and next year was appointed president of the council of the Indies, in which office, the most important in the kingdom after that of prime minister, he rendered great service to the state and the colonies. In 1779 he founded in the valley of Sonora in Mexico a colony, which soon prospered, and for which he was created a marquis.--His brother, Matias, born in Velez-Malaga in 1731 ; died in the City of Mexico, 3 November, 1784, entered the administration through the influence of his brother Jose, and obtained rapid promotion, being appointed in 1781 captain- general of Guatemala. There he laid in 1782 the foundation of the new cathedral, after the removal of the capital from old Guatemala, which had been ruined by the earthquakes of 1773. In the same year war began with England, and the British forces occupied several places on the Athmtie coast, but Galvez in 1782-'3 successively drove them from Omoa, Roatan, San Juan, Rio Tinto, and Bluefields, and in recompense was appointed in the latter year viceroy of Mexico. During his short administration he had the Streets of the capital cleaned and paved, and patronized the Academy of fine arts, for which he ordered from Italy plaster models of the principal art-treasures. During his administration Alejandro Valdes began to publish " La Gazeta," the first newspaper of Mexico. He also proposed to the home government the establishment of a bank of loans, for which he had abundant subscriptions, and, although the idea was not executed in his time, he may be considered as the originator of the banking system in Spanish America. In 1784 the small-pox ravaged Mexico, and Galvez was active in mitigating the sufferings of the poorer class.--His son, Bernardo, born in Malaga in 1755; died in the City of Mexico, 30 November, 1786, was called to court at the age of sixteen years by his uncle, the minister, and entered as cadet in the regiment of Walloon guards. Wishing to perfect himself in military science, he obtained leave of absence in 1772 and went to France, where he served three years in the regiment of Cantabria, and was promoted lieutenant. In 1775, when Charles III. declared war against Algiers, Galvez returned to Spain and served as captain in the expedition of General O'Reilly. He distinguished himself in several encounters with the Moors, rose to the rank of colonel, and on his return in the same year was given the rank of brigadier. Early in 1776 he was appointed second in command to the governor of Louisiana, Luis de Unzaga, and after the pro- motion of the latter to be captain-general of Caracas, toward the end of the year, took charge of the government. He made great improvements in several branches of the administration, and gathered and colonized several tribes of wandering Indians, whom he succeeded in civilizing. In 1778 the Continental congress sent Captain Willing as agent to New Orleans, and Galvez assisted him secretly with arms and ammunition and $70,000 in cash. Spain offered her mediation between the colonies and Great Britain, and, her offer being repulsed by the latter, declared war on 16 June, 1779. Galvez immediately formed a plan of campaign, and, although he had only a small military force under his command, he did not wait for re-enforcements, but, organizing volunteer regiments, marched northward on the eastern River bank. He took Fort Manchac on 27 August, and in September captured Baton Rouge, Fort Panmure, and Fort Natchez. In October he received re-enforcements from Havana, and was made a major general. He then invested Mobile with his combined forces, and in February, 1780, captured Fort Charlotte, forcing the City to surrender. His army, with the organized militia, soon rose to 14,000 men, and he invaded the northwestern part of Florida, defeating the British in several encounters, and besieged Pensacola, but, being unable to attack it from the sea-side for want of siege artillery and a fleet, went in January, 1781, to Havana, and returned in February with the necessary material. The British capitulated on 9 May, and, together with 800 prisoners and the armament, the whole west coast fell into the hands of the Spanish. This feat of Galvez was celebrated by M. de Poydras in a poem which was published at the expense of the king of France. After the signature of peace at Versailles, 3 September, 1783. Galvez was rewarded by the title of count and the rank of lieu-tenant-general, and was appointed captain-general of Cuba. On the death of his father he was promoted viceroy of Mexico, taking charge of the government, 17 June, 1785. He improved the working of the mines, augmenting the crown revenue from them, while at the same time he protected their owners from the unjust exactions of the revenue officers, rebuilt the old theatre, and repaired the causeways of the Piedad and Tlalpam. In 1785 a famine desolated the province, and an epidemic broke out in the following year, and Galvez did all in his power to alleviate the public sufferings, giving large contributions from his private purse for the relief of the poor. He also constructed on the site of the ancient summer palace of the Montezumas, Chapultepec, a palace for himself and his successors at the expense of over $300,000, and, as it was built like a strong fortress with bastions and heavy artillery, his enemies calumniated him at the court, insinuating that he intended to declare himself independent of Spain. The home government began to manifest some distrust, and this preyed on Galvez's mind. He became melancholy arid reserved, seeking his only distraction in the chase. In consequence of violent overexertion he fell ill and died after a few days in the archiepiscopal palace of Tacubaya.

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

Start your search on Jose de Galvez.


 

 


 


Unauthorized Site: This site and its contents are not affiliated, connected, associated with or authorized by the individual, family, friends, or trademarked entities utilizing any part or the subject's entire name. Any official or affiliated sites that are related to this subject will be hyper linked below upon submission and Evisum, Inc. review.

Copyright© 2000 by Evisum Inc.TM. All rights reserved.
Evisum Inc.TM Privacy Policy

Search:

About Us

 

 

Image Use

Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States of America by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday. , the United States of America: We The People Click Here

 

Childhood & Family

Click Here

 

Historic Documents

Articles of Association

Articles of Confederation 1775

Articles of Confederation

Article the First

Coin Act

Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

Emancipation Proclamation

Gettysburg Address

Monroe Doctrine

Northwest Ordinance

No Taxation Without Representation

Thanksgiving Proclamations

Mayflower Compact

Treaty of Paris 1763

Treaty of Paris 1783

Treaty of Versailles

United Nations Charter

United States In Congress Assembled

US Bill of Rights

United States Constitution

US Continental Congress

US Constitution of 1777

US Constitution of 1787

Virginia Declaration of Rights

 

Historic Events

Battle of New Orleans

Battle of Yorktown

Cabinet Room

Civil Rights Movement

Federalist Papers

Fort Duquesne

Fort Necessity

Fort Pitt

French and Indian War

Jumonville Glen

Manhattan Project

Stamp Act Congress

Underground Railroad

US Hospitality

US Presidency

Vietnam War

War of 1812

West Virginia Statehood

Woman Suffrage

World War I

World War II

 

Is it Real?



Declaration of
Independence

Digital Authentication
Click Here

 

America’s Four Republics
The More or Less United States

 
Continental Congress
U.C. Presidents

Peyton Randolph

Henry Middleton

Peyton Randolph

John Hancock

  

Continental Congress
U.S. Presidents

John Hancock

Henry Laurens

John Jay

Samuel Huntington

  

Constitution of 1777
U.S. Presidents

Samuel Huntington

Samuel Johnston
Elected but declined the office

Thomas McKean

John Hanson

Elias Boudinot

Thomas Mifflin

Richard Henry Lee

John Hancock
[
Chairman David Ramsay]

Nathaniel Gorham

Arthur St. Clair

Cyrus Griffin

  

Constitution of 1787
U.S. Presidents

George Washington 

John Adams
Federalist Party


Thomas Jefferson
Republican* Party

James Madison 
Republican* Party

James Monroe
Republican* Party

John Quincy Adams
Republican* Party
Whig Party

Andrew Jackson
Republican* Party
Democratic Party


Martin Van Buren
Democratic Party

William H. Harrison
Whig Party

John Tyler
Whig Party

James K. Polk
Democratic Party

David Atchison**
Democratic Party

Zachary Taylor
Whig Party

Millard Fillmore
Whig Party

Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party

James Buchanan
Democratic Party


Abraham Lincoln 
Republican Party

Jefferson Davis***
Democratic Party

Andrew Johnson
Republican Party

Ulysses S. Grant 
Republican Party

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party

James A. Garfield
Republican Party

Chester Arthur 
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party

Benjamin Harrison
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland 
Democratic Party

William McKinley
Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican Party

William H. Taft 
Republican Party

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic Party

Warren G. Harding 
Republican Party

Calvin Coolidge
Republican Party

Herbert C. Hoover
Republican Party

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party

Harry S. Truman
Democratic Party

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party

John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party

Lyndon B. Johnson 
Democratic Party 

Richard M. Nixon 
Republican Party

Gerald R. Ford 
Republican Party

James Earl Carter, Jr. 
Democratic Party

Ronald Wilson Reagan 
Republican Party

George H. W. Bush
Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

George W. Bush 
Republican Party

Barack H. Obama
Democratic Party

Please Visit

Forgotten Founders
Norwich, CT

Annapolis Continental
Congress Society


U.S. Presidency
& Hospitality

© Stan Klos

 

 

 

 


Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum