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Jose de San Martin

SAN MARTIN, Jose de, Argentine soldier, born in Yapeyu, 25 February, 1778; died in Boulogne, France, 17 August, 1850. At the age of eight years he was sent to Spain, where he was educated in the College of the nobility, and, entering the army in 1791, served with credit during the French invasion. Being promoted lieutenant-colonel, he left the arnly to offer his services in the cause of South American independence, and arrived in March, 1812, in Buenos Ayres. The government commissioned him, with the rank of colonel, to organize a regiment of mounted grenadiers, with which he took part in the campaign against the viceroy Vigodet, whom he defeated, 13 January, 1813, at San Lorenzo. On 18 January, 1814, lie was appointed commander-in-chief of the army in upper Peru, to replace Belgrano; but, seeing that the Spanish power in America could not be broken until it should be attacked from the Pacific coast and deprived of the rich resources of Peru, he matured a scheme for an invasion of Chili, and, under the pretext of feeble health, retired from the command of the army and went to the province of Cuyo as governor in September, 1814. There, with the cooperation of the Chilian emigrants, he organized the famous army of the Andes, and, obtaining the assent and tacit, aid of the Argentine director, Pueyrredon, he set out with his army on 21 January, 1817, from Mendoza. Misleading the Spanish generals by false reports, he crossed the Andes under great difficulties by the pass of Uspallata, and, surprising the Spanish at Chacabuco, totally routed them on 12 February, entering the capital triumphantly on the 15th. He was elected supreme chief of the republic, but declined and proposed O'Higgins, only reserving the command of the auxiliary Argentine army. The sum of $10,000, offered him by the mumcipality he also refused, dedicating it to the foundation of a library in Santiago. After the surprise of the united army by the Spaniards at Cancha Rayada, 19 March. 1818, he reorganized his forces and totally defeated the royalists at Maipo on 5 April of that year, liberating Chili from the Spanish yoke. After a visit to Buenos Ayres, he returned in October to Chili, and soon began to organize, with O'Iliggins, a fleet and army for the invasion of Peru. In May, 1820, he was called with his troops to Buenos Ayres, but disobeying, as no established government existed in the Argentine, he was proclaimed by his army an independent chief, and on 20 August sailed with an army of 4,500 men on Admiral Cochrane's fleet from ValDaraiso, landing on 7 September at Pisco. After a brilliant campaign he entered lama, which had been abandoned by the Spaniards on 12 July, 1821, and on 27 July proclaimed the independence of Peru, being elected on 3 August by the municipality chief of the government, under the title of protector. During his short administration he abolished slavery and the tribute that had been levied on the Indians, and introduced many other reforms, especially in the system of educa'tion. He sent the famous regiment of mounted grenadiers to assist Bolivar in his struggle for independence in Ecuador, and, seeing the importance of united action, he met him in Guayaquil on 25 July, 1822. What passed at this interview is unknown, but on his return to Lima, San Martin resigned on 22 August, and, leaving part of his army to assist Gem Sucre, he went to Europe, where he established himself in Brussels. In 1828 he returned to Buenos Ayres shortly after the battle of Ituzaingo, and, finding his country plunged in intestine troubles, returned to Brussels, as he had made a vow never to un-sheath his sword in civil war, and in 1830 settled in Paris. Chili, Buenos Ayres, and Peru have erected statues in his honor. The one in Buenos Avres is shown in the engraving. "SAN MARTIN, Tomas de, SpanishAmerican bishop, born in Cordova, Spain, in 1482" died in Lima, Peru, in 1554. He entered the Dominican order, and was appointed regent of studies in the College of St. Thomas, Seville. While here he asked to be sent to Santo Domingo as missionary to the Indians. He arrived in that island in 1525, and at onee sided with Las Casas in defending the rights of the natives. He was president of the royal audience of Santo Dosningo till 1529, when he went to Spain in the interests of the colony. Learning that a body of Dominicans were about to follow Pizarro to Peru, he resigned his title of president, and went with them. He remained in San Miguel de Piura when Pizarro marched to meet Atahualpa at Caxamarea, but entered Cuzco after its capture, and then went to the province of Charcas, .of which he was the first apostle. In 1540 he was made vicar provincial of the Dominicans of Peru, and began the construction of the convent of San Rosario in Lima, and was afterward appointed provincial for eight years. In 1541, after the assassination of Pizarro and the proclamation of the son of Almagro as captain-general of Peru, Vaca de Castro, governor of Peru, who was then at Panama, made San Martin his representative. He assembled the leading inhabitants of Lima, and proposed the election of a lieutenant-general to rule the country until the governor should arrive. His advice was followed, and the choice fell on Francisco de Barrionuevo. In the battle of Chupas in 1542, between the partisans of Ahnagro and the viceroy, he was present at the solicitation of the latter, but attended impartially to the wounded on both sides. In 1543 he received a letter from Charles V. charging him to see to the execution of the ordinances promulgated at the instance of Las Casas for the protection of the natives. In the civil war that resulted from the effort to give effect to these ordinances, he made several attempts to bring about a reconciliation between the viceroy, Nufiez Vela, and Gonzalo Pizarro, and on the tri-nmph of the latter was sent by him, in conjunction with the archbishop of Lima, to Spain, to solicit an amnesty. He set out in 1546, but, meeting Pedro de la Gasca at Panama, who had arrived from Spain with full power to restore order in Peru, he returned to Lima. In 1550 he was commissioned by the city of Lima to treat with the court of Spain concerning the administration of the country. The emperor not only granted him all the favors he asked for the city, the principal of which was the establishment of a university, but gave him the title of first bishop of La Plata and the regency of the royal audience in that city. On his arrival in Lima he was attacked by the malady of which he diod.

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