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RIVERA, Jose Fructuoso (re-vay'-rah), president of Uruguay, born in Paysandu in 1790; died in Montevideo, 13 January, 1854. He was a "gaucho," began to serve under Artigas against the Spaniards in 1811, and when, in 1814, hostilities between that chief and the Argentine general, Alvear, began, Rivera, in command of a division, defeated Dorrego, 10 January, 1815, at Guayabos, and entered Monte-video, of which he was appointed commander by Artigas. During the Portuguese invasion Rivera was his lieutenant, but in 1820 he capitulated on condition that his rank of colonel should be recognized, and that he should be kept in command of a regiment of gaucho cavalry. On the invasion of the province by Jose Antonio Lavalleja (q. v.), he was surprised by that chief, on 29 May, 1825, but immediately went over to him with all the forces at his command, and took a brilliant part in the battle of Sarandi on 12 October, for which he was rewarded by the Argentine congress with a pension. In August, 1826, when Rivadavia appointed General Alvear chief of the Argentine auxiliaries, there were disagreements, and Rivera, refusing his aid, was outlawed and fled to Corrientes. But on 21 April, 1827, he returned with 100 adventurers from Santa F6, invaded the Brazilian missions, and, gathering and disciplining a force of 1,800 Indians, kept the Brazilian army in cheek. For this he was pardoned, and when, after the independence, Lavalleja assumed the provisional presidency, 25 April, 1829, he appointed Rivera commander-in-chief. After the proclamation of the constitution, congress elected Rivera president, 24 October, 1829; but Lavalleja plotted against him, and began an armed rebellion in 1832, but was defeated, 20 September, and forced to take refuge in Brazil. As president, Rivera paid little attention to the constitution, introducing a purely personal and arbitrary government. Although he was not dishonest for his own gain, he allowed his friends and former officers to pilfer the treasury, yet the commercial prosperity of the country increased greatly. Lavalleja tried the fortunes of war once more in 1834, but was defeated and again took refuge in Brazil. In the elections of that year the opposition or Federal party obtained the victory, and on 1 March, 1835, General Oribe was installed president; but he appointed Rivera commander-in-chief. By instigation of the dictator Rosas (q. v.), Oribe persecuted the unionist chiefs, and finally, being authorized by congress, called Rivera before a court of inquiry for some arbitrary measures. The latter rose in rebellion, 16 July, 1836, declared the president a traitor to the nation for his connivance with Rosas, and, aided by the gauchos, the unionists, and the foreign colony, began a struggle against the government. After a long civil war, Oribe resigned, 20 October, 1838, and Rivera was elected president. The former took refuge with Rosas, who gave him the command of an army to subdue the revolution of Lavalle and La Madrid (q. v.), and declared war against Uruguay in 1842. Rivera invaded the province of Corrientes, but was defeated by Oribe at Arroyo Grande on 6 November The victorious army in its turn invaded Uruguay, and in February, 1843, the famous siege of Montevideo began. Rivera, leaving General Paz in charge, left with the cavalry to open a campaign in the interior, and held part of Rosas's army in check for two years, till it was reenforced by General Urquiza with 40,000 men, and Rivera was defeated at India Muerta, 28 March, 1845. But finally Brazil signed a treaty with Uruguay, 29 May, 1851, Oribe was killed in battle on 8 January, 1852, and Rosas was defeated at Monte Caseros on 3 February Juan Francisco Gird was elected president, 1 March, 1852, and Rivera aided General Venancio Flores in an insurrection. President Gird fled to a neutral man-of-war, and Flores, declaring the executive chair vacant, instituted a triumvirate composed of himself, Lavalleja, and Rivera; but the two latter soon died. The two chief" towns of the department of Tacuarembo have been named after him, Rivera and Fructuoso.
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