Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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LAMAR, J ose (lah-mar'), South American soldier, born in Guayaquil, Ecuador, in 1778; died in San Joss de Costa Rica in 1830. When young he went to Madrid, and, entering the Spanish army as a cadet, fought in the war against France in 1794 At the beginning of the war of independence in Spain he was a lieutenant-colonel, and was severely wounded at the defence of the fort San Joss de Zaragoza. After recovering he commanded 4,000 men at Valencia, and on 9 January, 1812, was taken prisoner and sent to Dijon, but escaped and returned to Spain in June, 1814. Soon afterward Ferdinand VII. appointed him a general and sent him in 1815 to Peru, where he joined the Independents. He assisted in all the campaigns and took part in the final victory of Ayacucho. In 1827 he was appointed grand marshal of Peru, took possession of the presidency, and in 1828 declared war against Colombia. Being defeated in Tarqui, 27 February, 1829, he was deposed on 3 June of the same year by the vice president, Gutierrez de la Fuente, and his army scattered by General Agustin Gamarra, who exiled him. Lamar arrived at Punta Arenas, 24 June, 1829, and then went to San Joss de Costa Rica, where he died. His remains were, by order of congress, transported to Lima in 1845.
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