Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum
   You are in: Museum of History >> Hall of North and South Americans >> Jose Maria Morelos





American’s Four United Republics: Discovery-Based Curriculum

For more information go to Historic.us

 

Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





Virtual American Biographies

Over 30,000 personalities with thousands of 19th Century illustrations, signatures, and exceptional life stories. Virtualology.com welcomes editing and additions to the biographies. To become this site's editor or a contributor Click Here or e-mail Virtualology here.



A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 



Jose Maria Morelos

MORELOS, Jose Maria (too-ray'-los), Mexican patriot, born in Valladolid (now Morelia), 30 September, 1765; died in San Cristobal Ecatepec, near Mexico, 22 December, 1815. He was of humble parentage, and after the early death of his father, his mother, an-able to give him an education, sent him to a relative, whom he assisted for many years as a muleteer between Mexico and Acapulco. At the age of thirty he had saved enough to enter the College of San Nicolas in Valladolid, of which at that time Miguel Hidalgo (q. v.) was rector, and in 1800 he was ordained to the priesthood. He obtained by competition in 1801 the parishes of Caracuaro and Nueupetaro, where he constructed a church. When Miguel Hidalgo proclaimed independence in 1810, Morelos sympathized with him, and when, after the capture of Guanajuato, the former marched upon Valladolid, Morelos offered his services, was appointed colonel, and commissioned to organize the revolution in the southwest of Mexico. Setting out with 25 men from his parish, he displayed great activity, and soon gathered a force of about 700 men, with which he invested Acapulco early in December, defeated the governor of the fortress, and captured a large quantity of arms. After his junction with the brothers Galiana he surprised in the night of 4 January, 1811, the Spanish chief Paris, who had marched from Oajaca against him, and captured 600 guns, 5 cannon, and much ammunition. But in the same month he lost his artillery in meeting a sally from the fortress, and to evade superior royalist forces, which were gathering from all sides, he raised the siege, and by quick marches soon captured every place on the Pacific coast and the provinces of Guerrero and Michoacan, leaving the Spaniards in possession only of the fortress of Acapulco. He defeated the royalists at Chautla de la Sal and Izucar, and on 16 August, 1811, entered Tixtla, after gaining twenty-two victories within nine months, and carrying dismay into the Spanish ranks. By the end of the year all the southern provinces from the Pacific coast to the confines of the valley of Mexico were freed from the enemy. On 22 January, 1812, he captured Tenancingo, and, preparing to attack the capital, established his headquarters in the town of Cuautla Amilpas ; but the viceroy, Venegas, alarmed at the proximity of the enemy, hurried forward the army of the centre under General Felix Calleja (q. v.), ordering the Oajaca division to join him. Morelos, with about 5,000 men and 30 pieces of artillery, fortified Cuautla as well as he could, and awaited Calleja. The latter, after placing his batteries, tried to take the place by assault on 19 February, but was driven back with the loss of 500 men, and laid siege to the city. Morelos withstood daily attacks until, after seventy-two days of defence, the ammunition and provisions were exhausted, and an attempt of Mariano Matamoros to relieve the place having failed, Morelos resolved to evacuate it, and on the morning of 2 May made a bold attack, and after an obstinate fight broke through the lines of the enemy, whose forces numbered more than double his own. He soon gathered his men at Chiautla and began the campaign anew, capturing Orizaba in October, 1812, with a great quantity of arms and ammunition. Although he was defeated on his march to the south on the heights of Acultzingo, he soon collected 5,000 men in Tehuacan and marched on Oajaca, which he took by storm on 25 November After organizing a government there, he marched again to the Pacific coast, invested Acapulco, and occupied the city on 15 August, 1813, and after he had captured the island of Roqueta, in a night attack, the fortress surrendered on 20 August Morelos now convoked a congress from the southwestern provinces that had submitted to the independent forces. This assembly met on 13 September, 1813. at Chilpantzingo, and on 6 November the solemn declaration of independence was formally signed by the first Mexican congress. Morelos now resolved to establish a regular government in Valla-dolid, organized his forces with those of the other patriots, and with more than 20,000 men appeared before that city on 22 December, 1813, and summoned the commander to surrender. But the garrison had been re-enforced, and in the night of 24 December Agustin de Hurbide made a daring sally. Morelos's army, surprised and fighting in the darkness, was totally routed, and retired to Chupio. After the second defeat of his troops at Puruaran, 15 January, 1814, where Matamoros was taken prisoner, Morelos fled toward Acapulco. With what forces he could gather he joined the congress at Texmacala, and that body, on 22 October, 1814, proclaimed at Apatzingan the first Mexican constitution, and appointed Morelos one of three to take charge of the executive. Soon there were dissensions among the three, and congress, not feeling secure at Uruapam before the advancing royalist armies, resolved to transfer the seat of government to Tehuacan, and ordered Morelos to act as escort. With about 1,000 men he set out on 29 September, 1815, and, although pursued by several bodies of Spanish troops, he was able to conceal his movements until he passed Mescala river, but at Texmalaca he was overtaken by Colonel Concha, and after a short fight was totally routed on 5 November After his flight he was recognized by a Spanish officer who formerly had served under him, and delivered to Con-cha, who conducted him to Mexico. After a brief trial he was degraded from the priesthood and condemned to death. While in prison he could have escaped through the intervention of the physician of the prison, Francisco Montesdeoca, but, fearing to expose the latter to Spanish vengeance, he refused to avail himself of the offer. Fearing a popular commotion if the execution should take place in the capital, the authorities transported him early on 22 December to the small village of San Cristobal Ecatepec, near Guadeloupe, and there he was shot from the rear, according to the sentence, as a traitor. He died like a brave man. walking with a firm step to the place of execution, and, when the order was given that he should be blindfolded, he tied the handkerchief himself. As a military leader, Morelos is considered one of the best of his time. His memory and name are greatly revered by the Mexicans, and his remains, which were buried after the execution in the church of San Cristobal, have been transferred to the cathedral of Mexico, and are there preserved, together with those of Miguel Hidalgo and other heroes of the independence. His native city was called Morelia in his honor, and the state that has been formed from a part of the former state of the Valley of Mexico, containing Cuautla, where he distinguished himself, has been named Morelos. Several districts in other states have also received his name.

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

Start your search on Jose Maria Morelos.


 

 


 


Unauthorized Site: This site and its contents are not affiliated, connected, associated with or authorized by the individual, family, friends, or trademarked entities utilizing any part or the subject's entire name. Any official or affiliated sites that are related to this subject will be hyper linked below upon submission and Evisum, Inc. review.

Copyright© 2000 by Evisum Inc.TM. All rights reserved.
Evisum Inc.TM Privacy Policy

Search:

About Us

 

 

Image Use

Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States of America by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday. , the United States of America: We The People Click Here

 

Childhood & Family

Click Here

 

Historic Documents

Articles of Association

Articles of Confederation 1775

Articles of Confederation

Article the First

Coin Act

Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

Emancipation Proclamation

Gettysburg Address

Monroe Doctrine

Northwest Ordinance

No Taxation Without Representation

Thanksgiving Proclamations

Mayflower Compact

Treaty of Paris 1763

Treaty of Paris 1783

Treaty of Versailles

United Nations Charter

United States In Congress Assembled

US Bill of Rights

United States Constitution

US Continental Congress

US Constitution of 1777

US Constitution of 1787

Virginia Declaration of Rights

 

Historic Events

Battle of New Orleans

Battle of Yorktown

Cabinet Room

Civil Rights Movement

Federalist Papers

Fort Duquesne

Fort Necessity

Fort Pitt

French and Indian War

Jumonville Glen

Manhattan Project

Stamp Act Congress

Underground Railroad

US Hospitality

US Presidency

Vietnam War

War of 1812

West Virginia Statehood

Woman Suffrage

World War I

World War II

 

Is it Real?



Declaration of
Independence

Digital Authentication
Click Here

 

America’s Four Republics
The More or Less United States

 
Continental Congress
U.C. Presidents

Peyton Randolph

Henry Middleton

Peyton Randolph

John Hancock

  

Continental Congress
U.S. Presidents

John Hancock

Henry Laurens

John Jay

Samuel Huntington

  

Constitution of 1777
U.S. Presidents

Samuel Huntington

Samuel Johnston
Elected but declined the office

Thomas McKean

John Hanson

Elias Boudinot

Thomas Mifflin

Richard Henry Lee

John Hancock
[
Chairman David Ramsay]

Nathaniel Gorham

Arthur St. Clair

Cyrus Griffin

  

Constitution of 1787
U.S. Presidents

George Washington 

John Adams
Federalist Party


Thomas Jefferson
Republican* Party

James Madison 
Republican* Party

James Monroe
Republican* Party

John Quincy Adams
Republican* Party
Whig Party

Andrew Jackson
Republican* Party
Democratic Party


Martin Van Buren
Democratic Party

William H. Harrison
Whig Party

John Tyler
Whig Party

James K. Polk
Democratic Party

David Atchison**
Democratic Party

Zachary Taylor
Whig Party

Millard Fillmore
Whig Party

Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party

James Buchanan
Democratic Party


Abraham Lincoln 
Republican Party

Jefferson Davis***
Democratic Party

Andrew Johnson
Republican Party

Ulysses S. Grant 
Republican Party

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party

James A. Garfield
Republican Party

Chester Arthur 
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party

Benjamin Harrison
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland 
Democratic Party

William McKinley
Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican Party

William H. Taft 
Republican Party

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic Party

Warren G. Harding 
Republican Party

Calvin Coolidge
Republican Party

Herbert C. Hoover
Republican Party

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party

Harry S. Truman
Democratic Party

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party

John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party

Lyndon B. Johnson 
Democratic Party 

Richard M. Nixon 
Republican Party

Gerald R. Ford 
Republican Party

James Earl Carter, Jr. 
Democratic Party

Ronald Wilson Reagan 
Republican Party

George H. W. Bush
Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

George W. Bush 
Republican Party

Barack H. Obama
Democratic Party

Please Visit

Forgotten Founders
Norwich, CT

Annapolis Continental
Congress Society


U.S. Presidency
& Hospitality

© Stan Klos

 

 

 

 


Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum