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CARRERA, Jose Miguel (car-ray'-rah), Chilian soldier, born in Santiago de Chili, 19 July, 1782' died in Mendoza, Argentine Republic. 1 September, 1815. He studied in Madrid, entered the Spanish cavalry, served with distinction during the war of independence against the French, was promoted to the rank of major and given the command of a squadron in 1810, and escaped from CAdiz when he heard of the revolutionary movement in Chili. Soon after his arrival he was appointed colonel in the revolutionary army by dictator Rosas, fought against the Spaniards, won great reputation among the military chiefs, which enabled him to depose Rosas (16 November, 1811) and to establish a new government under his own authority. He then quelled an insurrection, and dissolved the congress, reorganizing the government on military principles. On 19 July, 1812, he was proclaimed dictator and general of the revolutionary army, and in 1813 the constitution of the new republic was promulgated. More Spanish troops having been sent to Chili from Peru to continue the war, Carrera ordered every one in communication with the enemy to be sentenced to death, banished many royalists, and subjected all others remaining in the country to a compulsory loan. On 30 April, 1813, he defeated 5,000 Spaniards under Pareja on the banks of the Maule. A few days afterward he took the City of Concepcidn, and laid siege to ChillOn, attacking it several times unsuccessfully. He met with reverses in October and public opinion turned against him and the monarchical constitution he had established. Then both the people and the army deposed Carrera, giving O'Higgins the supreme command, 27 November, 1813. On 23 July, 1814, he raised a rebellion that caused the fall of Lastra, and again assumed power. A division of the royalist troops under Osorio having just arrived near Concepcidn, Carrera and O'Hig-gins fought a battle in the Rancagua valley (2 October), were disastrously routed by the Spaniards, and rook refuge in Mendoza. In the following year he joined in a plot against O'Higgins and San Martin, and these two leaders caused him to be imprisoned, court-martialed, and executed.
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