Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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SAN CARLOS, Jose Miguel, Duke de, Spanish-American statesman, born in Lima, Peru, in 1771 ; died in Paris, France, 17 July, 1828. He was descended from the ancient family of Carvajal, which since the time of Charles V. had possessed the hereditary title of chief courier for the Indies. After completing his studies at the College of Lima, he went to Spain at the age of sixteen, and entered on a military career. He commanded the right of the allied armies that attacked Toulon in 1793, was tutor of the king's children in 1797-1801, was appointed major-domo of Charles IV. in 1805, and in 1807 became viceroy of Navarre. When Ferdi-hand VIII. ascended the throne, he made the Duke de San Carlos director of his household, and %l-lowed the advice of his old tutor, and of Escoiquiz, in submitting to Napoleon. During the king's captivity the duke labored incessantly for his restoration, and when he had accomplished this object, in December, 1813, he exercised the functions of prime minister until in the following November the influence of his enemies compelled his retirement. He was afterward ambassador at different courts, and died while representing his government at Paris.
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