Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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LACROIX, Joseph Francois Pamphile, Viscount de (lah-crwah'), French soldier, born in Aymarques, Gard, 1 June, 1774; died in Versailles, 16 October, 1841. He had scarcely finished his studies in Montpellier when he was attached to the staff of his cousin, General d'Harville, and served afterward under Custine, Dumouriez, and Pichegru. When twenty-two years old he was made brigadier-general, defeated the Austrians at Freiberg, 22 July, 1796, and served in Italy under Moreau and Macdonald in 1799. He enjoyed the reputation of a good soldier, but as he was disliked by Bonaparte he could neither obtain advancement nor important commands. He went to Santo Domingo in 1802, and directed the landing of the French at Cape Francais, 6 February, defeating Christophe, who had tried to oppose the landing. He was rewarded with the commission of major-general, and given charge of the negotiations with Toussaint l'Ouverture and Christophe, which were terminated by the treaty of peace of 9 May. On the resumption of hostilities with Christophe, Lacroix, who had won the affection of the negroes through his humanity, owed his life to them several times, and was once rescued by the insurgents themselves from a party of Christophe's soldiers, who had surprised him. He was subsequently lieutenant to General Rochambeau, but a few weeks later was sent back to France on account of the latter's jealousy of his popularity among the colored population, who used to call him their king. Lacroix served under Murat from 1805 till 1809, fought at Waterloo in 1815, and in 1820 checked at Grenoble and Befort the insurrections that were promoted by Lafayette. He retired in 1824. General Lacroix published "Memoires pour servir a l'histoire de la revolution de Saint Domingue" (2 vols., Paris, 1819; revised ed., 1820). This work is the only impartial account by a witness of that disastrous campaign of 1802 and 1803. --His brother, Etienne Joseph Francois, French soldier, born in Aymarques, Gard, 21 July, 1776; died in Jeremie, Santo Domingo, in April, 1803, enlisted in 1794, and served in Italy. He was a colonel when he went to Santo Domingo in 1802, and was sent to subdue Tortugas and the other neighboring islands. He also took Jeremie, and inflicted two severe defeats on Christophe, on 7 August and 11 October, near Port au Prince. He afterward recaptured Fort Dauphin, and defeated the negroes who besieged him there. After the departure of his brother for France, some colored citizens entered into negotiations with him to drive the French from the colonies, promising to elect him king instead of his brother. Lacroix was unwilling to accept, but Christophe nevertheless took alarm and caused him to be killed in Jeremie during a riot.
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