Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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GALLOWAY, Joseph, lawyer, born near West River, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, about 1729; died in Watford, Herts, England, 29 August, 1803. After a course of preliminary study, during which he seems to have acquired a taste for religious speculating, which remained with him through life, he studied law and began to practise in Philadelphia, where he acquired distinction in his profession. He was an intimate friend of Benjamin Franklin, and when the latter went to England, in 1764, he placed in Galloway's hands his valuable letter-books and other papers for safe keeping. He was chosen to the assembly of Pennsylvania in 1757, and almost continuously thereafter until the Rovolution, and was its speaker from 1766 till 1774, being usually elected by a unanimous vote. In 1769 Princeton gave him the degree of LL.D. In his capacity of member of the state legislature he made a speech in opposition to John Dickinson and in favor of changing the government from the proprietary to the royal form. In the early part of the colonial struggle he exhibited sympathy for the crown, and grew to be an active Tory. Through his influence as speaker of the assembly he had himself chosen, with his friend, Chief-Justice Allen, who also became a Tory, to the Provincial congress, with the purpose, no doubt, of influencing that body in favor of the king. As a member of the congress in 1774 he proposed a scheme of government, to consist of a president-general, to be appointed by the king, and to hold office during his pleasure, and a grand council, to be chosen once in three years by the assemblies of the various colonies. In December of the same year he was chosen to the congress to meet the next May, and soon thereafter published "A Candid Examination of the Mutual Claims of Great Britain and the Colonies: with a Plan of Accommodation on Constitutional Principles" (New York; reprinted in London, 1780). After serving in the congress of 1775 he retired to his county-seat, where Dr. Franklin visited him, and unavailingly sought to induce him to join the cause of independence. In December, 1776, he joined General Howe, the British commander, and accompanied him in his advance through New Jersey, serving his cause by procuring intelligence and giving advice. On the taking of Philadelphia he was appointed superintendent of the police of the City and suburbs, of the port, and of the prohibited articles, and thus became the head of the civil government during the British occupation. At the evacuation of the City he retired with the enemy, and in the following October went to England, and never returned. In 1779 he was examined before the house of commons on the conduct of the war in America, and made accusations against the British commander, and printed three letters to a nobleman on the same subject, charging that the failure of the British was because of General Howe's incompetency. The Pennsylvania assembly in 1788 attainted Galloway of high treason, and ordered the sale of his estates, worth, according to his testimony before a parliamentary committee, £40,000. He also published, besides several pamphlets, "Historical and Political Reflections on the American Rebellion" (London, 1780), and " Brief Commentaries upon such Parts of the Revelation and other Prophecies as immediately refer to the Present Times, in which the Several Allegorical Types and Expressions of those Prophecies are translated into Three Literal Meanings" (1802). To the latter book Dean Whitaker made a caustic reply, which called forth from Galloway an answer entitled : "The Prophetic or Anticipated History of the Church of Rome... Prefaced by an Address, Dedication, Expostulatory and Critical, to the Reverend Mr. Whitaker, Dean of Canterbury" (London, 1803).
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