Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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RIVA AGUER0, Jose (re'-vah-ah-goo-ay'-ro), president of Peru, born in lama, 3 May, 1783; died there, 21 May, 1858. He belonged to an illustrious family, received an excellent education and went to Spain, where he entered the military service. In 1808 he went to Buenos Ayres, where he became attached to the cause of South American independence, He returned to Lima in 1809, and was appointed comptroller of the court of accounts, but resigned in 1813 to join the Independents. He maintained a correspondence with the patriots of Buenos Ayres and Chili, and in 1820 was appointed colonel. After the landing of General San Martin he was elected, 4 August, 1821, first prefect of Lima. For his military services he was rewarded by the unanimous vote of the army with an election as president of the republic, 28 February, 1823, and on 4 March congress raised him to the rank of grand marshal. Soon afterward General Canterac, at the head of a strong Spanish army, marched upon Lima, and the government retired to Callao. Riva Aguero re-enforced his army and organized a navy, but the disagreements between the chiefs caused general discontent. He began negotiations with the Spanish authorities, and on 19 August was deposed by congress. By order of Bolivar he was arrested on 25 November, sent to Guayaquil and exiled to Europe, whence he began to write hostile parephlets against Bolivar. In 1831 congress revoked his sentence of exile and he returned in 1833, was elected in 1834 deputy to congress for Lima, and reinstated in his military rank, but did not appear again in politics.
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