Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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JORRIN, Jose Silverio (hor-reen'), Cuban author, born in Havana, Cuba, in 1816. He studied law in his native city, and was admitted to the bar in 1841. After finishing his studies he spent several years in travel through the United States and Europe, and on his return to Havana filled important offices, devoting his time to his professional duties, literary pursuits, and the promotion of public instruction in the island. Jorrin belongs to several literary and scientific societies, and is a corresponding member of the Historical society of New York. He has been elected several times senator for Cuba in the Spanish cortes, and has been always a Liberal in politics and a stanch abolitionist. He has published a "Tratado de Dibujo Lineal" (1839); "Recuerdos de un Viaje a Italia"; a translation of Tacitus; and a "Life of Columbus."
--BEGIN-Theresa Jose do Santa
JOSE DE SANTA Theresa (ho-say'), pen-name of JOAO DE NOGONHA F REIRE, Portuguese historian, born in Lisbon in 1658; died in Rome in 1736. He became a Jesuit, and was for twelve years attached to the missions of South America, but his health compelled him to return to Europe, where in 1694 he became librarian of the college of the Jesuits in Rome. He published "Istoria delle guerre del Regno del Brasile accadute tra corone di Portogallo e la republica di olanda," a standard work (2 vols., Rome, 1698); "Bibliotheca historica de Portugal" (4 vols., Rome, 1727); and several less important works.
JOSEPHINE (MARIE JOSEPHINE ROSE TAS-CHER DE LA PAGERIE), empress of France, born in Trois Ilets, Martinique, 24 June, 1763; died in Malmaison, near Paris, 29 March, 1814. She was descended from a family of the county of Blois, of which a branch settled in Martinique in 1726, and her father, an artillery officer, held the post of harbor master of Port Royal at the time of her birth. She received her education in the latter city, at the convent of the Sisters of Saint Joseph, and at the age of thirteen was an accomplished creole of great beauty. Her family betrothed her to the Viscount Beauharnais, a scion of an old family and the son of a former governor of Martinique, whom she wedded in Paris on 13 December, 1779. The union was not happy, as the viscount became so jealous of the distinction that was shown to his young wife at the court of Marie Antoinette that he went to Martinique in 1786 to inquire into her former life, and on his return sued for divorce But the parliament of Paris dismissed his complaint. In the following year Josephine returned to Trois Ilets, and remained till 1790, when troubles began in the island, and she was obliged to fly for her life in great haste. Josephine was imprisoned in Paris during the reign of terror, and her husband was executed in 1794, but she never lost courage, as an old colored woman in Martinique had predicted in her infancy that she would someday occupy an exalted position. On 9 March, 1796, she married Napoleon Bonaparte, and in 1804 ascended the throne with him. She used her influence in behalf of acts of benevolence, interceding with Napoleon for Toussaint L'Ouverture, disapproving the expedition to Santo Domingo, and urging him to cede Louisiana to the United States. For political reasons. Napoleon was divorced from her, 9 January, 1810, but he always entertained a kind regard, and maintained her household as that of the reigning empress. By her former marriage, Josephine had two children, both born in Paris, Eugene de Beauharnais, known as Prince Eugene, who became viceroy of Italy and a noted general, and Hortense, who married Louis, king of Holland, and became the mother of Napoleon III.
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