Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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PEZET, Juan Antonio (pay-thet'), president of Peru, born in Lima in 1806. He was the son of a French physician, and entered the military college of San Carlos, but when General San Martin with the Chilian army obliged the viceroy to evacuate the capital in 1821, young Pezet joined the patriots and took part in the campaign as sub-lieutenant. In 1823 he was promoted lieutenant, and under Bolivar and Sucre fought at Junin and Ayacucho. He became captain in 1828, and in 1835, as colonel of the battalion of sharp-shooters of Rimac, took part in the rising of Gamarra against the Peru-Bolivian confederation and was banished. After his return he was appointed prefect of Lima, took part in the revolution of Vivanco in 1843, and was appointed inspector-general of the army and pre-feet of La Libertad. He was wounded and taken prisoner in 1844, but was pardoned, became prefect of Arequipa in 1847, and in 1848 was made general-in-chief of the division of the south, and prefect of Moquegua. Under President Echenique, in 1853, he was appointed inspector-general and chief of the Army of the South during the invasion of Bolivia. In 1859 he was secretary of war, and in 1862 he was elected vice-president with General San Roman, assuming the executive at the death of the latter in 1863. During his administration the difficulties with Spain began which culminated in the occupation of the Chinehas islands, 14 April, 1864, but when he signed a treaty with the Spaniards, on 27 January, 1865, which was considered derogatory to the national honor, a general uprising followed, so that on 7 July, 1865, he delivered the executive to the vice-president, and retired to Europe. He returned in 1871, and has since lived in retirement.
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