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MORALES, Juan Bautista, Mexican author, chiefly known by his pen-name "Gallo Pitagdrico, '" born in Guanajuato, 29 August, 1788; died in Mexico, 29 July, 1856. He began his education in his native city, in 1809 came to Mexico to study jurisprudence in the College of San Ildefonso and in the theoretic-practical academy of law, but on account of straitened circumstances was not graduated till 1820, when he was admitted to the bar. He strenuously opposed Hurbide, when the latter assumed the imperial crown, and was imprisoned. After Hurbide's fall, Morales was elected to the constituent congress of 1824, which modelled the first constitution, and he was afterward several times a member of congress and senator whenever the Federal party was in power. In 1835 he obtained by competition the chair of canonical law in the College of San Ildefonso, and in 1837 he was elected judge of the Federal supreme court. When Santa-Anna usurped power in 1841, and the junta de notables published in 1843 the famous "bases organicas," which abolished the federal system, Morales defended his ideas in the press, and published critical articles in the "Siglo XIX.," of which he was editor. He was banished by Santa-Anna, was one of the principal instigators of the revolution of 6 December, 1844, which overthrew the dictator, and was elected governor of Guanajuato, where, in his short administration, he established many useful reforms. After the pronunciamento of General Paredes in January, 1846, a congress, elected by classes, was instituted, and Morales was appointed to represent the magistracy; but, true to his Federal opinions, he declined. He was elected by congress president of the supreme court in 1850, but deposed by Santa-Anna at his return to power. After the final fall of that general in 1855, Morales was reinstated in the supreme court, and in the last years of his life he defended the Church party, and wrote a pamphlet against religious toleration. He was the founder of the "Semanario Judicial," and at different times edited "El Hombre Libre," "La Gaceta." "Aguila Mexi-cana," "Siglo XIX.," "Monitor," "Debates," "Democrata," and "Republicano"; but his principal fame depends on the series of brilliant critical and politico-satirical articles that he published from time to time in different journals. A collection of these appeared after his death under the title of "El Gallo Pitagdrico" (Mexico, 1858).
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