Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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ESCALONA, Juan (escahlo'nah), South American soldier, born in Caracas, Venezuela, in 1768; died there in 1834. He joined the revolutionists in 1810, and on 5 July 1811, as president of the federal executive, he declared the independence of Venezuela to the republican soldiers. He assisted in re-conquering Venezuela in 1813, and in 1814 defended Valencia till obliged to surrender to Bores, who put citizens and soldiers to death on entering the City. Escalona escaped to Caracas, where he hid himself, but continued to encourage the revolutionists by his writings. He returned to the army in 1820, and filled various civil and military posts till 1826, when he was elected commander-in-chief of Venezuela, relieving General Paez, who had been suspended by order of the senate pending an official investigation. After the restoration of public order in 1827 he resigned his commission, but continued in the service of the government till 1830, when the republic of Colombia was dissolved. After Venezuela had become a separate country he was made prefect of Caracas, and as such was instrumental in suppressing an insurrection in 1831.
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