Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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ESPINOSA, Juan, South American soldier, born in Montevideo in 1804; died in Arenas, Peru, in 1871. He was known as "the soldier of the Andes." Espinosa's family emigrated to Buenos Ayres in 1807. His father was exiled in 1810 by the revolutionists, and the boy remained with his mother till he was twelve years of age, when he enlisted in the troops that left Buenos Ayres in 1816 to fight for the independence of Chili. Espinosa fought at Chacabuco, 12 February 1817, and Maypu, 5 April 1818, and was promoted officer of the 8th battalion of Rio de la Plata. In 1820, when sixteen years of age, he followed San Martin in his expedition to Peru, took part in the battles of Rio Bamba, Piehincha, and other encounters, which freed the territory now known as the republic of Ecuador.
After this Espinosa was assigned to the battalion Pichincha, of the Colombian division, and in 1823 served in the campaign of Intermedios, in 1824 in the battle of Ayacucho, and after the campaign of Bolivia, in 1825, had reached the rank of lieutenant colonel of Colombia. After the war of independence Espinosa wished to return to his country, but had no means to make the trip. Bolivar gave him, $500, and the customhouse of Arica defrayed his expenses to Valparaiso. He supported himself in Chili for ten years, and in 1841 returned to Lima, and was appointed by General Oamarra rector of the College of Puno. He afterward shared in the campaign of the south as secretary to the commander-in-chief. The government of Marshall Castilla appointed him inspector general of the army, and in 1857 he was made prefect of Ayaeucho, and commander-in-chief of the departments of Ayacucho, Junin, and Juancavelica. As sub-secretary of war, Espinosa shared in the encounter of Callao on 2 May 1866. He left two works, " Herencia espanola 6 earacter de Isabel II," and " Diccionario republicano."
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