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QUIROGA, Juan Facundo (ke-ro'-gah), Argentine soldier, born in San Juan, in the province of Rioja, Argentine Republic, in 1790; died in Barranea Yaeo, near Cordova, 28 December, 1835. His parents were shepherds, and sent him in 1799 to school in San Juan, but he soon assaulted his teacher and fled, working as a laborer to gain a livelihood. He was sent in 1806 by his father with a cargo of merchandise to Chili ; but he lost it at the gaming-table, and when on his return he was reproached by his father, the youth assaulted him and fled to the pampas, where, with a few daring companions, he led the life of a robber. In 1818 he was captured and imprisoned in San Luis by order of the governor, Despuis. In the same prison there were several Spanish officers, and they concerted a plan for escape, removing the shackles from the criminals to aid them, but Quiroga fell on his libera-tots and killed several of them. For this service he was set at liberty, and the fame of this exploit soon surrounded him with a numerous band of followers, with whom he began a career as "r partisan chief. The province of Rioja had long been divided by the feud of the families of Ocampo and Davila, and in 1820 the government was in the hands of the former family, which attracted Quiroga by giving him the rank of general in command of the state forces; but soon the latter, who was to escort the remnants of a mutinous Federal battalion out of the state, made joint cause with them, attacked and captured the capital, and would have shot the governor but for the intervention of one of his chief officers. He now recalled the banished Davila; but, as the latter would not submit to Quiroga's dictation, he was deposed, and, as he resisted with some loyal regiments, he was attacked and killed by Quiroga, who proclaimed himself independent chief of the province. In 1826 the president, Bernardo Rivadavia (q. v.), whose authority was impotent against the provincial chieftains, invited Quiroga to co-operate in the war against Brazil, and the latter defeated La Madrid at Tala, thus gaining supremacy also in the province of Tucuman. After the election of Manuel Dorrego (q. v.) in 1827, Quiroga sustained with enthusiasm the Federal principle, represented by Dorrego, as leaving the provincial chieftains only nominally subject to the central government. When Dorrego's successor, Juan Lavalle, of the opposite party, sent General Jose M. Paz (q. v.) against the Federal partisans, Quiroga was defeated at Tablada in 1829 and at Oneativa in 1830. He fled to Buenos Ayres, where he was ordered by Rosas, who meanwhile had assumed the power, to march against Paz and Madrid, and at the head of 200 criminals, whom he had taken from the penitentiary, and some troops, he defeated Paz at Chacon, and Madrid at Ciudadela in 1831, ravaged the country, and committed numerous crimes. In 1834 he returned to Buenos Ayres, where he began to talk against Rosas. The latter, not daring to attack him openly, tried to get him out of the capital, and commissioned him to arrange a quarrel between the governors of Santiago and Tucuman. Quiroga accepted, and, setting out in November, 1835, soon restored order. On his return he was advised that near Cordova a party of gaucho assassins was lying in wait for him; but he answered that there was no man in the pampas who dared to kill him, and, continuing his journey, was murdered at Barranca Yaco by Santos Perez and his party. See Domingo F. Sarmiento's "Faeundo Quiroga y Aldao, 6 Civiliza-cion y Barbarie en las Pampas Argentinas" (Buenos Ayres, 1852).
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