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Juan Martin de Pueyrredon

Juan Martín de Pueyrredόn  - A Stan Klos Biography Site

  

PUEYRREDÓN, Juan Martín, Argentine general and Supreme Director (1816–19), born in Buenos Aires, 18 December, 1776; died in Buenos Aires, 13 March, 1850. Their parents were Juan Martín de Pueyrredón y Labroucherie and Rita Damasia O’Doghan y Martinez de Soria. Juan Martín enter the royal college of San Carlos, but left it in 1971, when his father died, to take control of the family businesses. In 1975 he was sent to Cádiz where his uncle Diego lived. Then he traveled through Spain and France, and studied history, literature, Latin and philosophy in Paris. He returned to Buenos Aires in 1802, but the next year returned to Europe to marry his cousin Dolores. His marriage lasted two years, till 1805, when his wife died in May.

 

When the English general, Sir William Beresford, occupied Buenos Aires, 27 June, 1806, Pueyrredon refused to recognize the new authorities, and, leaving the city, began to organize the resistance. On 31 July,  he organized a volunteer force, which, after a defeat at Perdriel, outside Buenos Aires, united with the army of Santiago de Liniers to recapture the city on 12 August. During the second invasion of the English, which ended by the capitulation of General Whitelocke, 7 July, 1807, Pueyrredόn was in Spain acting as a representative from Buenos Aires. In Europe, he witnessed the French occupation of Spain, and realized that the best choice for his country was the complete independence. In this sense, he advised the Buenos Aires authorities to ignore the rule of the vice-king Cisneros, but his letter was intercepted by Martín de Álzaga who asked the governor of Montevideo Elío to capture him. He escaped to Brasil and returned to Buenos Aires in June, 1809, where he decided with his friends Belgrano, Castelli, Vieytes, Beruti and Rodriguez Peña to propose Carlota Joaquina (at that time in Brasil) as ruler of Buenos Aires during the captivity of his brother, the king of Spain, Fernando VII. However, this project did not proceed as expected. Back to Buenos Aires, after the 25 May, 1810, revolution, Pueyrredόn is appointed governor of Córdoba and Charcas (1810–11). After the battle of Huaqui, he rescued the treasury of Potosí, was made commander of the patriot army of the north (1811–12), and member of the first triumvirate at Buenos Aires (1812).

 

After the fall of the triumvirate he was exiled to San Luis, where he lived from 1812 to 1815. There, he had meetings with José de San Martín, the governor of Mendoza. In 1815, Pueyrredόn married the 14 years old María Calixta Tellechea (their only son was the famous painter Prilidiano Pueyrredón, born in 1823). He was sent, as representative from San Luís, to the Congress of Tucuman, 9 July, 1816, where he is elected Supreme Director after the resignation of Carlos María de Alvear. He did his utmost to assist San Martín in the preparation of his expedition for the liberation of Chile, and, after the latter’s departure, 17 January, 1817, forwarded re-enforcements and resources to him. In 1817 he obtained the transfer of the national congress to Buenos Aires, and in 1818 the congress decreed the a unitarian constitution, which caused general discontent and several revolts. Pueyrredόn sent forces against the rebellious provinces, and ordered the army of the north against them, but the insurgents were victorious, and he decided to resign, 9 June, 1819. While in power, Pueyrredόn organized the public finances, founded the first national bank, the mint and the customs house, re-opened the San Carlos College, and organized the army and the military courts. After the battle of Cepeda in 1820, Pueyrredόn took refuge in Montevedio. He returned in 1821.

 

In 1828, the governor Juan Lavalle asked him to be part of a temporary government council, and carried out negotiations with Juan Manuel de Rosas. Pueyrredόn and his family went to live to Europe in 1835 and returned in 1849, ending his days in retirement on his ranch, Bosque Alegre, at San Isidro, near Buenos Aires.

 

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia by Jose' M. Carcione, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

PUEYRREDON, Juan Martin de (poo-air'-ray-don'), Argentine statesman, born in Buenos Ayres about 1775 ; died there about 1840. He received his education in Spain, but returned in the first years of the 19th century. When the English general, Sir William Beresford, occupied Buenos Ayres, 27 June, 1806, Pueyrredon refused to recognize the English authorities, and, leaving the city, began to organize resistance. On 31 July, with a force of armed peasants, he attacked the English outworks, and was driven back, but his troops surrounded the city, which capitulated on 11 August In the second invasion of the English he took a principal part in the heroic defence of the city, which ended by the capitulation of General Whitelocke, 7 July, 1807. He was active in the movement for independence in 1810, and, after the resignation of the director, Alvarez, was elected by the congress of Tucuman, of which he was a member, supreme director of the Argentine Republic, 3 May, 1816. Together with San Martin and Belgrano he favored in that congress the election of a monarch, fearing that a republican form of government would continue the anarchy that existed at that time. During his administration he did his utmost to assist San Martin, governor of Cuyo, in the preparation of his expedition for the liberation of Chili, and, after the latter's departure, 17 January, 1817, forwarded re-enforcements and resources to him. In the same year he obtained the transfer of the congress to Buenos Ayres, in order to have it more under his influence. On 13 May that. body began its sessions there, and in 1818 it decreed the new constitution, which caused general discontent and several revolts. Pueyrredon sent forces from Buenos Ayres against the rebellious provinces, and ordered the army of the north against them, but the insurgents were victorious, and Pueyrredon was forced to resign, 10 June, 1819, taking refuge in Montevideo. After a few years he returned, but he did not again take part in public life, ending his days in retirement on his estate, Bosque Hermoso, near Buenos Ayres.

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

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