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MARTINEZ DE ROZAS, Juan, South American statesman, born in Mendoza, Argentine Republic, in 1759; died there in February, 1813. He studied philosophy and theology in the College of Mon-serrate, in Cordova, and in 1780 went to Santiago to study civil and canonical law in the University of San Felipe, where he was graduated in 1781. He was appointed in the same year to the chair of philosophy in the Royal college of San Carlos, and was the first in Chili to teach physics. In 1782 he also taught jurisprudence in the same college and at the University of San Felipe, and in 1784 he was admitted to the bar of the audiencia, being graduated in 1786 as doctor of civil and canon law. He was appointed assistant intendant of the province of Concepcion in 1787, fortified the frontier line of Arauco, founded the city of Linares, and in the rising of the Araucanians did important services that were rewarded by the rank of lieutenant-colonel. In 1796 he was appointed second in command of the presidency of Chili. He began in 1808 to support the cause of independence, and, gaining the confidence and good-will of the frontier forces, he kept up an active correspondence with General Belgrano and other Argentine chiefs. When independence was declared, he was appointed a member of the first governing junta, 10 September, 1810. On 27 February, 1811, he was promoted to the presidency of the junta, and immediately sent an auxiliary force of 400 men to Buenos Ayres to assist in the war in upper Peru. On 1 April he personally quelled a mutiny of the soldiers, dissolving the audiencia, which had instigated the movement, and establishing instead the court of appeals. He convoked the first congress, and opened it with an eloquent address, which is preserved as a noteworthy political document. After Carrera assumed the supreme power he banished Martinez to Mendoza, where he died soon afterward.
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