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PALAFOX y MENDOZA, Juan (pah-lah-foh'), Mexican archbishop, born in Fitero, Navarre, 24 June, 1600; died in Osma, Spain, 1 October, 1659. He was a son of the Marquis of Ariza, studied law in the University of Salamanca, and was appointed by King Philip IV. attorney of the supreme council of war, and afterward of the council of Indies. Subsequently he was ordained priest, went with the Princess Mary to Germany as almoner, and on his return was made bishop of Puebla de los Angeles. In 1640 he went to Mexico in company with the newly appointed viceroy, the Marquis de Villena. The latter, who belonged to a family of Portuguese origin, did not inspire great confidence at court, and by his arbitrary conduct caused many complaints against him in Madrid, and therefore Palafox was ordered by a secret despatch to take charge of the government. As he had been pro-rooted archbishop of Mexico, he went to the capital under the pretext of assuming his see, and during the night of 9 June, 1642, he convoked the authorities and communicated the royal decree, ordering the arrest of the viceroy by one of the judges of the supreme court. Villena was sent to the convent of Churubusco, but after a few days he was permitted to reside in San Martin de Texmelucan, whence he left for Spain in September. During Palafox's short government he ordered the destruction of many Aztec idols, statues, and other valuable antiquities, which had been preserved by former viceroys. He delivered the executive, on 23 November, 1642, to the new viceroy, Count de Salvatierra, and resigned the arch- " bishopric, but; continued his inspection of the audiencias and government offices till 1645, when he returned to Puebla. In 1647 his controversies with the Jesuits began, which at one time threatened to result in armed hostilities, and required the intervention of the temporal authorities. Palafox fostered education and protected the Indians, but his unbending character created continual difficulties, and in 1649 he was ordered to appear at court. He was appointed president of the supreme council of Aragon, and when judgment in his favor was given in Rome in regard to the Puebla controversies, he was given the see of Osma in 1053. He was an able scholar and a prolific writer. Besides nearly 100 ecclesiastical works, he wrote the following, "De la Naturaleza del Indio," "Sitio y socorro de Fuente-Rabia," "Resquesta al Marques de Villena," and "Tratado de Ortografia," all reprinted in Madrid in 1762, and "Carta al P. Andrds de Rada, Provincial de la CompaiSia de aesus in Mexico," reprinted in Madrid in 1789.
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