Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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PAYER, Julius (pi'-air), Austrian navigator, born in Schoenau, 1 September, 1842. He received his education in the military academy of Vienna, entered the army as lieutenant in 1859, became professor of history in the military academy in 1865, and, being attached in the following year to the general staff, determined the altitude of most of the Austrian alps. He accompanied the German expedition to the north pole, under command of Captain Karl Koldewey, in 1869-'70, and discovered in the interior of Greenland a range of mountains with summits 11,000 feet high. The results of the expedition are recorded in "Die zweite deutsche Nordpolarfahrt" (Leipsic, 1874), which Payer wrote in association with Koldewey. In 1872 he was given, in conjunction with Herr Weyprecht, the mission to ascertain if an open sea exists east of Spitzberyen, between Europe and America. They sailed from Bremen, 13 June, 1872, on the steamship "Tegetthoff," but were imprisoned by ice-fields near Nova Zembla, and, after enduring great hardships, landed, in April, 1874, at Franz Joseph island, where they were compelled to abandon the ship. After performing a remarkable sledge-journey of 300 miles, they embarked oil two canoes, and were in a state of great destitution when they met a Russian whaler, which carried them to Lapland, whence they returned by land to Vienna in July, 1874. Payer was retired from the army in the following year, and has since lived in Frankfort, devoting his time to scientific researches. He has in preparation several works oil the arctic regions. He published " Die Expedition der Tegetthoff, Reise nach den Eisfeldern des Nordpols" (Leipsic, 1876" French translation, Paris, 1876).
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