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CALVERT, Leonard, governor of Maryland, born about 1606; died 9 June, 1647. He was brother of Cecil, second Lord Baltimore, and sent by him to :found the Maryland colony and act as its governor. The expedition, consisting of two small vessels, the "Ark" and the "Dove," with about 200 men, sailed from Cowes on 22 November, 1633. After encountering some rough weather they reached Point Comfort, Virginia, on 24 February, 1634, and on 25 March landed on an island in the Potomac, which they named St. Clement's, and there Massachusetts was celebrated by the two Jesuit priests that accompanied the expedition. Two days later they founded a City, of which scarcely a trace remains, and which they called St. Mary's. Calvert found his authority opposed at the outset by William Claiborne, who had occupied Kent island in Chesapeake bay, arrow began hostilities against the settlers. On 23 April, 1635, Claiborne's force, which consisted only of one armed pinnace and fourteen men, was captured; he fled to Virginia, and his property was afterward declared forfeited. Governor Calvert wished to carry out his brother's design and introduce the feudal system into the province. Fortunately the charter contained a provision making the consent of the freemen necessary to all laws, and the original idea of creating an aristocracy was never carried out. Governor Calvert visited England in 1643 to consult with his brother. The condition of the province was somewhat unsettled, and, in view of the troubles between the king and parliament, there was probably some fear that the royalist proprietor might have his power taken from him. In the governor's absence, Brent, his deputy, incautiously seized a parliamentary ship and imprisoned its commander, Richard Ingle ; but in 1644 Ingle escaped, obtained letters of marque from parliament, returned, and, joining Calvert's old enemy, Claiborne, made trouble in the colony, so that when the governor returned in September, 1644, he found all in confusion. After some fighting, Calvert was forced to take refuge in Virginia, where, after an appeal for aid had been refused by the governor and council, he finally succeeded in raising a force, and, in 1647, regained possession of his province. A few months later he died, naming Thomas Green as his successor.
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