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Leonardo Marquez

MARQUEZ, Leonardo (mar'-keth), Mexican soldier, born in Mexico about 1820. He entered the army in early life, and, when serving as a major against the revolution of General Paredes, captured the guerilla chief Jarauta (q. v.) near Guanajuato in July, 1848. But he was soon dissatisfied with the Liberal government, and on 10 February, 1849, pronounced in Sierra Gorda against President Herrera, declaring the resignation of Santa-Anna void, and marched against Queretaro. His forces deserted him and he was obliged to fly. He was captured in Popotla, but escaped, and later was included in an amnesty. In 1858, under General Zuloaga's government, he captured Zacatecas from the Liberal forces, but was soon forced to evacuate it. After the accession to power of Miramon (q. v.), Marquez was one of the chief supports of the reactionary government. While Miramon was absent in the attack on Vera Cruz, the Constitutional forces under Santos Degollado marched against the capital, but the garrison under Marquez encountered and totally defeated them at Tacubaya, 11 April, 1859. The victory was sullied by the execution of a great number of prisoners, and also of six young medical students, who had left the capital to assist the wounded Liberals, Marquez alleging an express order from Miramon for this cruel act. On the triumphal entry of the victorious army into the capital the next day, Marquez was presented by a committee of ladies with a silk sash bearing the inscription: "To virtue and valor, a token of the gratitude of the daughters of Mexico." Miramon now organized three brigades for service in the interio, and Marquez, in command of one, marched to Michoacan, occupying Morelia and afterward Guadalajara. From the latter place he made an expedition to Tepic, where he ordered several executions, and brought back twenty loads of bar-silver. On his return he marched against Guanajuato, and was attacked by the forces of General Jose Maria Arteaga, whose rear-guard he surprised and routed. In November, 1859, General Miramon, who for some time had shown dislike for Marquez, ordered his arrest and criminal prosecution for the seizure of a commercial remittance of $600,000 in silver in Guadalajara, but after the defeat of the reactionary forces in Silao, 10 August, 1860, Miramon was forced by circumstances to set him at liberty. In September he took the command of one of the three divisions that were formed in Mexico, and was ordered to watch the Constitutional forces in Guanajuato. but when the bulk of their army marched on Guadalajara, and Marquez was not strong enough to intercept them, he was ordered against Queretaro, which he occupied in October. After recruiting his army he tried to relieve the reactionary forces that were besieged in Guadalajara, but was defeated near Guanajuato by General Huerta on 8 October After the armistice of Guadalajara he was attacked on 10 November by the main army under Gonzalez Ortega at Tololotlan, and totally defeated, taking refuge in the city of Mexico, where he was soon surrounded by the Constitutional forces. As the government was entirely destitute of resources, Marquez gave the superintendent of police, Lagarde, a written order to enter the house of an Englishman under pretext of searching for hidden arms, and, notwithstanding a protest, a door closed with the seal of the British legation was forcibly opened and $620,000 belonging to British bond-holders were taken on 17 November, 1860. When Miramon at last resolved to march against the Constitutional forces, Marquez left the capital on 20 December, in command of one of the divisions, and after the final defeat of the reactionary party at Calpulalpam on 22 December, when Miramon fled to Europe, Marquez retired to the mountains of Michoacan and continued to harass the Liberals. When Escobedo (q. v.) early in 1861 was captured by the reactionary forces under General Mejia in Rio Verde, Marquez used his utmost endeavors to have Escobedo shot, but Mejia resisted and saved Escobedo's life. In March, 1861, Marquez issued a decree, which he circulated widely, declaring all persons that served the government of Juarez traitors, and condemning them to death. With the expectation of foreign intervention against the Liberal government, the reactionary forces were encouraged, and Marquez marched on Tulancingo in April and attacked Queretaro, but was defeated. He then joined the ex-president, Zuloaga, and they occupied Villa del Carbon in May, 1861. In this month the reactionary forces captured Melchor Ocampo (q. v.) in his estate of Pomoca and delivered him to Marquez and Zuloaga, by whose orders he was shot at Tepeji del Rio and his body hanged to a tree. Public indignation now rose to the highest pitch, and congress offered a reward of $10,000 for his head or that of Zuloaga ; but he evaded the government forces, and, joining Galvez, defeated and captured, on 23 June, General Leandro Valles, who was shot and hanged to a tree. After the withdrawal of the Spanish and British forces from Mexico, Marquez offered his services to General Laurencez, and on the latter's retreat from Puebla in Nay, 1862, commanded the rear-guard and sustained a bloody fight with Zaragoza's forces at Barranca Seca. After the arrival of General Ferry and during the operations in 1863, Marquez led the van-guard, occupied Cuapiaxtla, Huamantla, and Ixtenco, and assisted in the siege of Puebla. After the establishment of the empire he was one of its firmest supporters and was appointed commander-in-chief of the Pacific coast, but early in 1865 the Liberal forces invaded Michoacan and forced Marquez to retire to Morelia. He organized a campaign with the French general Douay, but in an encounter with the Liberal forces he was dangerously wounded in one eye. The emperor, when the army was remodelled, sent him in the middle of the year as envoy to Turkey, and thereby lost one of his most faithhll supporters. When the empire was nearing its end Marquez was recalled, and arrived in November, 1866, in Mexico with Miramon. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the capital, and after the defeat of Miramon at San Jacinto on 1 February, 1867, accompanied the emperor to Queretaro with about 4;000 men. When that city was surrounded by the Liberal forces under Escobedo, Marquez was despatched in the middle of March with some cavalry to Mexico, with the rank of lieutenant of the empire and orders to organize forces for the relief of Queretaro; but, instead of returning there, he resolved to relieve Puebla, which was besieged by Diaz. But the latter took the city on 2 April, and, encountering Marquez's forces at San Lorenzo on 10 April, totally routed them. Marquez returned to Mexico nearly alone, and in his turn was besieged by Diaz. After the fall of Queretaro, which Marquez tried to conceal, he took the harshest measures to force the inhabitants and garrison to resistance : but gradually provisions began to fail, many poor persons died of starvation, and when Diaz, re-enforced by the troops from Queretaro, made a final assault on 20 June, the garrison began to show signs of insubordination, Marquez hid himself, and Diaz occupied the city the next day. Marquez remained concealed for several days, and finally escaped to Havana, where he has since resided.

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