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Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





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Lords Baltimore

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BALTIMORE, LORDS, proprietors of the province of Maryland.

 

*Sir George Calvert, first Baron Baltimore, born in Kipling, Yorkshire, England, about 1582 ; died in London, 15 April 1632. He was graduated at Oxford in 1597, and was then sent abroad to travel. On his return he became secretary to Robert Cecil, who afterward obtained for him a clerkship of the privy council.

 

In 1617 he was knighted by James I., who esteemed him highly, and gave him a pension in 1620. He had previously been made a secretary of state, but resigned the office in 1624, having become a Roman Catholic. He did not, however, lose the king's favor, but continued at court in the capacity of privy councilor, and from this fact, in connection with James's hatred of apostasy, some have concluded that he was always a Roman Catholic, but there are many evidences that he was actually converted. In 1625 the king made him a peer of Ireland.

 

He had for some time been interested in the colonization of the New World, having been a member of the great company for Virginia, and in 1621 obtained from the king a patent for the southern promontory of Newfoundland, which he named Avalon. Here he spent money lavishly in building warehouses and a splendid mansion. He visited his colony after the death of James, and again in 1629, when he captured some French ships that had been harassing the colonists. He was much disappointed, however, to find the climate so severe, and wrote to Charles I., desiring another grant farther south. In 1628 he visited Virginia and explored Chesapeake bay. His reception in Virginia was unfavorable, on account of his religion, for Church-of-England men had full control there.

 

Notwithstanding this, he was delighted with the country, and, although the king tried to dissuade him from founding another colony, he was persistent in his entreaties. Charles finally yielded, and in 1632 a new patent was drawn up, giving Baltimore that part of the country now included in the states of Maryland and Delaware. But before the papers were completed Lord Baltimore died, leaving his son to reap the benefit of the grant.

 

The first Lord Baltimore seems to have been a man of much wisdom and moderation. He was liked by all parties, and, although a strong supporter of royal prerogative in England, he favored popular institutions and liberty of conscience in the colonies. It is supposed that many of the provisions of the Maryland charter were due to him, and it is even thought that he may have drawn up the entire paper. His design, as shown by the charter, was to found a state where there should be, on the one hand, a hereditary landed aristocracy and many features of the feudal system, and, on the other, an assembly of freemen whose consent should be necessary to all laws. For a list of books relating to George Calvert, see "Proceedings of the Maryland Historical Society, 1880." See also Winsor's "Narrative and Critical History of America" (Boston, 1886).

 

Cecilius (or Cecil) Calvert Baltimore, second Lord Baltimore, born about 1605; died in London, 30 November 1675. Little is known of his early life. About 1623 he married Anne Arundel, whose name is still borne by one of the counties of Maryland. On 20 June 1632, the charter that had been intended for his father was issued to him. It granted to him, as lord proprietor, many of the rights of a feudal sovereign, but provided for popular government, and exempted the colonists from taxation.

 

In November 1633, Cecil sent an expedition under his brother Leonard (see CALVERT, LEONARD) to his new domain. He never visited it himself, but governed it by deputies for forty-three years, and was universally commended for his moderation toward both colonists and natives.

 

*Charles Calvert, third Lord Baltimore, born in London in 1629; died there, 24 February 1714. His father sent him to Maryland as governor in 1662, and he succeeded to the proprietorship in 1675. He left Maryland in 1684, and never returned. During his life the province was disturbed by insurrections, caused by opposition to the feudal supremacy of the proprietor, and by the influence of the Anglican Church, whose adherents wished it to become the established Church of the country. By steadfastly resisting their demands, Lord Baltimore was of service to the cause of religious freedom. See "The Foundation of Maryland," published by the Maryland Historical Society (Baltimore, 1883).

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia by John Looby, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

BALTIMORE, LORDS, proprietors of the province of Maryland.*Sir George Calvert, first Baron Baltimore, born in Kipling, Yorkshire, England, about 1582 ; died in London, 15 April 1632. He was graduated at Oxford in 1597, and was then sent abroad to travel. On his return he became secretary to Robert Cecil, who afterward obtained for him a clerkship of the privy council. In 1617 he was knighted by James I., who esteemed him highly, and gave him a pension in 1620. He had previously been made a secretary of state, but resigned the office in 1624, having become a Roman Catholic. He did not, however, lose the king's favor, but continued at court in the capacity of privy councilor, and from this fact, in connection with James's hatred of apostasy, some have concluded that he was always a Roman Catholic, but there are many evidences that he was actually converted. In 1625 the king made him a peer of Ireland. He had for some time been interested in the colonization of the New World, having been a member of the great company for Virginia, and in 1621 obtained from the king a patent for the southern promontory of Newfoundland, which he named Avalon. Here he spent money lavishly in building warehouses and a splendid mansion. He visited his colony after the death of James, and again in 1629, when he captured some French ships that had been harassing the colonists, tie was much disappointed, however, to find the climate so severe, and wrote to Charles I., desiring another grant farther south. In 1628 he visited Virginia and explored Chesapeake bay. His reception in Virginia was unfavorable, on account of his religion, for Church-of-England men had full control there. Notwithstanding this, he was delighted with the country, and, although the king tried to dissuade him from founding another colony, he was persistent in his entreaties. Charles finally yielded, and in 1632 a new patent was drawn up, giving Baltimore that part of the country now included in the states of Maryland and Delaware. But before the papers were completed Lord Baltimore died, leaving his son to reap the benefit of the grant. The first Lord Baltimore seems to have been a man of much wisdom and moderation, fie was liked by all parties, and, although a strong supporter of royal prerogative in England, he favored popular institutions and liberty of conscience in the colonies. It is supposed that many of the provisions of the Maryland charter were due to him, and it is even thought that he may have drawn up the entire paper. His design, as shown by the charter, was to found a state where there should be, on the one hand, a hereditary landed aristocracy and many features of the feudal system, and, on the other, an assembly of freemen whose consent should be necessary to all laws. For a list of books relating to George Calvert, see "Proceedings of the Maryland Historical Society, 1880." See also Winsor's "Narrative and Critical History of America" (Boston, 1886).

Cecilius (or Cecil) Calvert Baltimore, second Lord Baltimore, born about 1605; died in London, 30 November 1675. Little is known of his early life. About 1623 he married Anne Arundel, whose name is still borne by one of the counties of Maryland. On 20 June 1632, the charter that had been intended for his father was issued to him. It granted to him, as lord proprietor, many of the rights of a feudal sovereign, but provided for popular government, and exempted the colonists from taxation. In November 1633, Cecil sent an expedition under his brother Leonard (see CALVERT, LEONARD) to his new domain. He never visited it himself, but governed it by deputies for forty-three years, and was universally commended for his moderation toward both colonists and natives.*Charles Calvert, third Lord Baltimore, born in London in 1629; died there, 24 February 1714. His father sent him to Maryland as governor in 1662, and he succeeded to the proprietorship in 1675. He left Maryland in 1684, and never returned. During his life the province was disturbed by insurrections, caused by opposition to the feudal supremacy of the proprietor, and by the influence of the Anglican Church, whose adherents wished it to become the established Church of the country. By steadfastly resisting their demands, Lord Baltimore was of service to the cause of religious freedom. See "The Foundation of Maryland," published by the Maryland Historical Society (Baltimore, 1883).

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

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