Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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MONTUFAR, Lorenzo (men-toe'-far), Central American statesman, born in Guatemala, 11 March, 1823. He studied philosophy and jurisprudence in the university of his native city, was admitted to the bar in 1845, and soon attracted notice. In 1848, when General Rafael Carrera (q. v.) executed nine citizens without trial, Montufar published a violent pamphlet against him, and was forced to secrete himself. The supreme court, whose members were all of the opposition, gave him the degree of LL.D. after tm examination in secret session, and on 24 June he left for Salvador. He was well received by President Vasconcelos, and appointed district alter-nev of San Vicente, but when Carrera, to appease the opposition, convoked a constituent assembly, Montufar was elected a member by his party, and returned on 8 September After Carrera's resignation, and his recall from Mexico in August, 1849, Montufar emigrated to Costa Rica, where he was appointed in 1850 judge of the supreme court and professor of jurisprudence in the university. In 1856 he became minister of foreign relations and public instruction, and during the invasion of William Walker he was sent as minister to Honduras. After the war he resigned, and began to practise law, but was subsequently obliged to flee to Salvador. President Gerardo Barrios appointed him minister to the United States, and also sent him to London on a financial mission. After the deposition of Barrios, Montufar went to Costa Rica, where he resumed practice and edited the paper "El Quincenal Josefino." In the latter he opposed the administration of President Jesus Jimenez, and in 1866, being ordered to leave the country, went to Salvador, where President Duegas appointed him minister to Peru. A treaty of commerce that he negotiated with that country was disapproved by Duefias, and, seeing the unstability of affairs in Central America, Montufar was admitted to the bar in Lima and practised his profession there. After the fall of President Jimenez on 27 April, 1870, Montufar returned to Costa; Rica, and was appointed minister of foreign affairs. In 1871 he was president of the Liberal convention from the five republics at Amapala, and in June of that year was called by the new president of Guatemala, Granados, to the ministry of foreign affairs, but declined, preferring to resume the same post in Costa Rica. He resigned the portfolio in 1874, and when Guardia recalled the Jesuits in 1875, Montufar's opposition became offensive to the dictator, and the former left the republic, returning to his native Guatemala, where President Barrios (q. v.) appointed him minister to Madrid. On his return he was elected judge of the supreme court, and commissioned to form a new code of law. He was minister of public instruction and foreign affairs in 1877-'8, in 1879 deputy to the constituent assembly, and a member of the commission to revise the new constitution, and in 1880-'1 held again the portfolio of foreign affairs. In 1882 he was sent as minister to Washington, commissioned to obtain the arbitration of the United States in the boundary dispute with Mexico; but when in June of that year Barrios appeared in Washington, and, against Montufar's advice, ceded a strip of the country in question, the latter resigned, but remained in the United States. After Barrios's death in April, 1885, Montufar returned to Guatemala, but a Liberal club that he formed displeased President Barillos, and on 16 September he was arrested, carried to the port of San Jose, and sent to California. From Acapulco he returned to San Salvador, where President Menendez commissioned him to write a work on the administrative law of that country, but he was expelled on demand of President Barillos, and went to Costa Rica, where he was appointed professor of political economy, and ordered by the government to write a work on William Walker's career in Central America, which is now (1888) ready for the press. In the latter part of 1887 President Barillos, changing his policy, recalled Montufar and appointed him minister of foreign affairs. He is a member of the "Real Academia Espanola" and numerous other scientific associations of Europe and America, and has written "Critica del Gobier-no servil de Guatemala" (Costa Rica, 1854); "De-fensa del General Gerardo Barrios" (London, 1863) ; a volume containing three pamphlets against the Jesuits (Costa Rica, 1872) ; "Memorias Historicas de Centre America" (5 vols., Guatemala, 1881)" '" El Evangelic y el Syllabus" (Costa Rica, 1884); "Un Dualismo Imposible" (San Salvador, 1886); and many pamphlets on legal questions and in favor of Central American unity.
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