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PAPINEAU, Louis Joseph, Canadian agitator, born in Montreal in October, 1789; died in Montebello, Quebec, 23 September, 1871 His father, a Montreal notary, was long a member of the legislative assembly of Lower Canada. The son was educated at the Seminary of Quebec, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1812. While vet a student he was, In 1809, elected a member of the legislative assembly for the county of Kent (now Chambly), and in 1811 succeeded his father as a member for one of the districts of Montreal, which he continuously represented for twenty years. In his early parliamentary career he ably supported the legislature in its opposition to executive control of the revenue, and was soon recognized as the leader of the young French Canadian party. He served in the war of 1812, had command of the company that preceded the American prisoners taken at Detroit to their destination at Montreal, and acted as a captain in the militia till the close of the war. On 15 January, 1815, Mr. Papineau was chosen speaker of the Lower Canada house of assembly, which office he held for twenty years. In 1820 he was appointed an executive councillor by the new governor of Lower Canada, Lord Dalhousie, notwithstanding the fact that Mr. Papineau was leader of the radical party and had opposed the demand of the executive for a permanent civil list. In 1823 he went to London to remonstrate against the union of Upper and Lower Canada. In 1827 his election as speaker was not ratified by Lord Dalhousie, who preferred to adjourn the parliament rather than sanction this choice, and it was not till 1828 that Papineau could take his seat. He prepared a list of the demands and grievances of his countrymen, which were embodied in "Ninety-two resolutions," forming the basis of petitions to the king, lords, and commons of the United Kingdom. As it was considered that the prayers, or rather demands, of Papineau and his compatriots, if granted, would be subversive of British authority, they were refused. Papineau afterward continued his agitation, recommending more violent opposition to the home government, and in March, 1837, the fact that the latter empowered the executive of Lower Canada to use the public moneys of the province for necessary expenditures, still further increased the revolutionary feeling there. During September, 1837, Papineau attended the meetings of the agitators throughout the country and intensified their feeling of animosity against Great Britain by his eloquent appeals to their national prejudices. On 6 November a few loyalists were attacked in Montreal by a band of men belonging to "Les ills de la liberte," led by Thomas Storrow Brown, an American resident of that city. As Papineau was held to be mainly responsible for the uprising of the French Canadians, a warrant was issued on 16 November for his arrest, which he evaded by escaping to Richelieu river, where the insurgents were prepare, 1 to rise at the bidding of their chiefs. He afterward was the guest at St. Denis of Dr. Robert Nelson, whose bravery was in marked contrast to the conduct of Papineau. The latter, instead of heading those whom he had incited to revolution, abandoned them in the moment of danger, and fled to Yamaska, on St. Hyacinthe river, whence he subsequently made his way to the United States. In February, 1839, he left for France, where he resided chiefly in Paris till 1847, returning in that year to Canada, under the general amnesty of 1840. He was subsequently elected to the united parliament, and led the opposition against Louis H. Lafontaine, one of his former followers. Papineau's political prestige being gone, he retired from public life in 1854, and afterward resided at. La Petite Nation Seigiory, Ottawa river. After his return to Canada he was paid £4,500 arrears of salary as speaker.
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