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Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





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Manuel Bhmco Encalada

ENCALADA, Manuel Bhmco (encahlah'da), South American soldier, born in Buenos Ayres, 21 April 1790; died in Santiago, Chili, 5 September 1876. He was the son of Blanco Ciceron, a Spaniard, who for some *dine acted as judge of the Supreme Courts in Peru, La Plata, and Bolivia. Blanco Enealada was sent to Spain in 1803, entered the "Seminario de Nobles" at Madrid, and from there went to the naval academy of the Island of Leon. In 1807, when the French blockaded the port of Cadiz, Encalada distinguished himself as second gunner on board the "Carmen." Wishing to return to America, he was sent in 1808, through the influence of his uncle, the Count of Villa Palma, to the port of E1 Callao as an ensign, which rank he had obtained as a reward for his conduct at Cadiz. In 1811 he began to show revolutionary ideas, and was sent to Spain by the Viceroy Abascal, but returned to Montevideo at the end of two years. Soon afterward he left his post, and, after flying to the woods and overcoming great dangers, swam across the Uruguay River and rode 240 miles to Buenos Ayres, whence in 1813 he started for Chili, arriving there in March at the same time of the landing of Pareja in Talcahuana.

Enealada was appointed captain of artillery, and in March 1814, had been promoted lieutenant colonel for his services to his party. About that date he was taken prisoner by the royalists, degraded as a deserter from Montevideo, and confined to a garrison, whence, in March 1817, the revolutionary forces of Chacabueo liberated him. In July Encalada entered the Chilean army as sergeantmajor of artillery, and on 19 March 1818, at the attack of Cancha Rayada, which was so disastrous for the liberal forces, he had under his charge twelve pieces of artillery. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel, and in the following June was given command of the naval force that captured, in the month of December five ships belonging to the Spanish expedition against Chili. Soon afterward he was made rear admiral, and appointed second to Lord Cochrane, who had begun his Pacific campaign. In 1820 Enealada was appointed major general of infantry. In August 1821, after having been a senator, he was tried for bringing charges against the government, but was absolved by O Hlggms. In January 1822, Enealada served under Bolivar in the expeditions of Guayaquil and E1 Callao, greatly contributing toward the victory of Ayacueho in December 1824. In July 1825, he was appointed general-in-chief of the army of Chili. In July 1826, Enealada became president of the republic of Chili, but tendered his resignation two months afterward, and up to the civil war of 1827'30 took no active part in public affairs.

He was in the Chilean expedition against Peru in 1838, after which he again disappeared from public life for ten years, visiting Europe in 1844'6. In 1847 he was appointed governor of Valparaiso, and contributed greatly to the progress of that City, laying in 1852 the first rail of the railroad between it and Santiago. He was appointed Chilean minister to France in 1853, but returned in 1858, and retired again to private life. In 1865, notwithstanding his age, he protested against the so-called war with Spain. To commemorate his services for his adopted country, the Chilean government had in 1875 a powerful ironclad of 3,560 tons named "Blanco Encalada," which, together with her sister ship " Almirante Cochrane," took a conspicuous part in the war against Peru and Bolivia in 1879 and 1880.

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