Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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PIAR, Manuel Carlos (pe'-ar), Venezuelan soldier, born in Curacoa, Wisconsin, in 1782; died in Angostura, 16 October, 1817. He was the son of poor artisans, received only a limited education, and engaged in trade with the neighboring coast of Venezuela. There he made the acquaintance of Francisco Miranda (q. v.) and other revolutionists, and in 1810 he entered the patriot army as sublieutenant, he took part in Marino's expedition from Chacachacare in January, 1813, defended Maturin in May of that year, and took part in the campaign of 1813-'14. He participated in the mutiny of Ribas against Bolivar and Marifio, 4 September, 1814, and in December was forced by Spanish successes to emigrate. In May, 1816, he took part in the expedition of Bolivar from Hayti, and was promoted major-general. In June he invaded Maturin, and joining" Gregor McGregor, he won the battle of Juncal on 27 September While Piar was investing Angostura, Governor Latorre suddenly marched to the interior to wrest the rich stores of the missions from the Independents. But Piar, who had anticipated this movement and prepared horses for remount in the pass of Caroni, threw his army by forced marches between Upata and Latorre, and totally defeated the latter's army on 11 April, 1817, at San Felix. Latorre reached his flotilla at Las Tablas with only seventeen men. Piar was promoted general-in-chief, and on 2 May met and recognized the authority of Bolivar, but only apparently, as he desired supreme command. He afterward recognized the authority of the congress of Cariaco, which opposed Bolivar, and, after obtaining leave of absence, made efforts to arouse a general revolt. He was arrested in Aragua on 27 September, and condemned to death by a court-martial. Bolivar reluctantly confirmed the sentence.
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