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Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





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Manuel Losada

LOSADA, or LOZADA, Manuel (lo-thah'-dah), Mexican bandit, born in Santa Teresa, canton Tepic, about 1825" died in Tepic, 19 July, 1873. He was of mixed white, negro, and Indian race, but was born and bred among the Indians. He passed his youth as a farm-laborer. About 1855 he abducted the daughter of a rich Indian of Mojarres, who had been refused in marriage to him, and fled to the neighboring mountains of Nayarit or Alica. Soon he became a cattle-thief, and in one of his descents to the plains was captured, together with his wife, but both managed shortly to escape. On returning to his mountain haunts he became a highwayman out of a desire for revenge, which was increased by the barbarous flogging of his mother, from whose hut he had just escaped, by the government officer who pursued him. He soon gathered a large band of Indians, and the farmers on the plains were in such fear of him that they did not dare to assist the government troops against him, while he levied from them contributions of arms, horses, and provisions. Owing to internal strife, the authorities were too weak to suppress brigandage, so that Losada soon became a terror to the inhabitants of the plains, and exacted tribute from every pack-train between the seaport of San Blas and the town of Tepic, and from all the proprietors of farms. When he captured the officer that had flogged his mother, he killed him and his command with cruel tortures, and followed these with other barbarities, which gave him the name of "the tiger of Alica." During the strife between the Liberal and Conservative parties, Losada joined the latter, and soon he became the autocrat of the mountains, dividing the population into districts, and exacting from every village a tribute and a certain number of warriors, whom he armed with American guns, and who obeyed him even under the most outrageous oppression. At last, Ramon Corona, a miner from Acaponeta, who had been persecuted by Losada for his Liberal ideas, attacked the brigand in 1858, first with a force of partisans and afterward with Liberal troops, but was unsuccessful, and Losada remained undisputed master of the department of Tepic. The government of Miramon flattered and decorated him, and after the fall of that leader in 1860 the returning Liberal government, busy with internal strife, left him undisturbed. After the French invasion the authorities recognized his grade of general-in-chief and commander of the Department of Alica, and the bishop of Guadalajara came to bless him. Maximilian sent a commission to deliver to the Indian bandit general a costly sword and the emperor's picture in a frame adorned with diamonds. The commission, on arrival at the village of San Luis, found "his excellency" clad in coarse cotton garb and rawhide sandals behind the plough. After the fall of the empire, Juarez failed to punish the bandit for his breach of faith in disregarding the neutrality that he had promised in 1862. Until 1872 Losada reigned supreme in the mountains of Alica. In that year he sent messengers to the Mayas of Yucatan, the Tarascos of Michoacan, and the Yaquis of Sonora, asking them to rise at the same time against the Liberal government, as he intended to establish an Indian empire. At the beginning of 1873 he had gathered at San Luis an army of about 20,000 Indians, which he divided into three bodies, sending one against Zacatecas and another against Sinaloa, and he marched at the head of 10,000 men on 17 January toward the centre of Jalisco, proclaiming to his followers that they were to take their pay from the captured towns. His former antagonist, General Corona, was military commander of Jalisco, and marched with scarcely 1,600 men to defend the city of Guadalajara from plunder. [['he two forces met, .28 January, 1873, at Mojonera, near Guadalajara, and, after a desperate battle, Losada was totally routed, and, with a loss of nearly 3,000, fled to the mountains, wounded in the arm. The government troops lost fewer than 400. General Ceballos, with a large force, was sent in pursuit of Losada, and after defeating him in several encounters, in which he was gradually abandoned by his followers, Colonel Rosales at last captured him. Losada was taken to Tepic, quickly tried by a military court, and executed near that town.

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