Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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ROBLES PEZUELA, Manuel (ro-bles-pay-thway'-lah), Mexican soldier, born in Guanajuato about 1810; died in Chalchimocula, 24 March, 1862. He entered the Military college in his youth, and in 1832 the engineer corps. In 1842 he became captain, and was appointed professor in the Military college, and in 1846 he became lieutenant-colonel. In the same year he was engineer-in-chief of the fortifications of Vera Cruz during the siege and bombardment by the United States forces. He also fortified the passes of Cerro Gordo and Pefion Viejo, and from 11 till 13 September, 1847, served under Santa-Anna at Chapultepec. After the evacuation of the capital by the Mexican forces he retired with the army to Queretaro, and in the next year served under Bustalnante against the revolution of Paredes in Quanajuato. Afterward he took part in the whole campaign of Sierra Gorda. In 1852 General Arista made him secretary of war, and in the same year he marched to the northern frontier to subdue the revolutionary forces of Carbajal. After the accession of Santa-Anna he was banished, and travelled through the United States and Europe to study fortification, being present during part of the Crimean war. He returned to Mexico in September, 1858, joined General Echeagaray against the government of Zuloaga, and, after the fall of that president, Robles took charge of the executive. His government was of short duration, as he did not receive the necessary support from the other generals, and resigned the executive, 21 January, 1859. In the same year he was appointed by Miramon commander of the forces that were besieging Vera Cruz, and he took part with that general in the campaign against the constitutional forces until the battle of Calpulalpam, 23 December, 1860. He then lived in retirement until the foreign invasion in December, 1861, when, as the Republican government distrusted him, he was confined to the interior and ordered to reside in Zacatecas" but he disobeyed, and was on his way to join the French army when he was arrested at Tuxtepec on 20 March, carried to San Andres, and condemned by court-martial to be shot. The sentence was executed, notwithstanding the intervention of General. Prim, and the envoys of France, Belgium, and the United States.
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