Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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PRADO, Mariano Ignacio (prah'-do), president of Peru, born in Huanuco in 1826. He entered the army early and served in the provinces of the south, but was in Lima on leave of absence when General Castillas revolution against Echenique's government began in 1854, in which he participated. He was taken prisoner and banished to Chili, but soon returned, joined Castilla in the mountains, and marched with him against the capital as chief of the " Columna sagrada." He was political governor of Tacna when Admiral Pinzon occupied the Chinchas islands, 14 April, 1864, issued a proclamation for the defence of the country, and became prefect of Arequipa. But when the Vivanco-Pareja treaty was signed, Prado. on 28 February, 1865, marched against Lima, and entered the capital on 6 November at the head of a victorious army, and on the 26th declared himself dictator. He signed at once a treaty of alliance with Chili, and when, after the bombardment of Valparaiso, the Spanish fleet appeared before Callao, Prado directed tile de-fence of 2 May, 1866. At the beginning of 1867 he assembled congress, which elected him constitutional president, but his rule was not approved by the country. Castilla rose in arms shortly afterward in Tarapaca, but died on the march to lama, and on 27 September, 1867, the vice-president, Canseco, put himself at the head of a rising in Arequipa, and Colonel Jose Balta (q. v'.) pronounced against Prado at Chiclayo. Prado attempted to take Arequipa by assault on 7 January, 1868, but was repelled, and retired to Chili. Under Pardo's government he returned, and was elected president, 2 August, 1876. He made several ineffectual attempts to come to an arrangement with foreign bond-holders, and when the quarrel between Bolivia and Chili began, according to the secret defensive treaty with the former republic, he espoused its cause, and war was declared by Chili, 5 April, 1879. Prado took active measures to prepare for defence, and on 16 May left Callao to take command of the army then assembling at Tacna. He proceeded at once to inspect the allied army at Tarapaca. where he was joined by the Bolivian president, Hilarion Daza (q. v.). After the battles of Jermania, San Francisco, and Tarapaca, Prado seemed to despair of success, and on 26 November left for Lima, ostensibly to prepare and hurry forward new re-enforcements, but on 18 December left the vice-president, La Puerta, in charge of the executive, and embarked secretly on a British mail-steamer, according to a manifesto that was published the day after his departure, to obtain help in money and material from Europe or the United States. He has not returned.
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