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Martin Alonso Pinzon and Richard Upjohn Pipe

Martin Alonso Pinzón    and Richard Upjohn Piper -  A Stan Klos Website

PINZÓN, Martin Alonso (pin-thone'), Spanish navigator, born in Palos de Moguer in 1441; died there in 1493. He was descended from a family of seamen, and became an able pilot, but retired from active service and was the senior partner of the firm of Pinzón Brothers, ship-builders at Palos de Moguer.

 

According to Francis Parkman in his "Pioneers of France in the New World," Pinzon sailed on board the vessel of one Cousin, a navigator of Dieppe, in 1488, and they were on the coast of Africa when their vessel was forced by storms far to the southwest, where they descried an unknown land and discovered the mouth of a mighty river. On the return voyage Pinzón's conduct became so mutinous that Cousin made complaint to the admiralty, and the offender was dismissed from the maritime service of the town, communicating on his return to Spain the discovery to Columbus.

 

The same fact is cited by Leon Gudrin in "Navigateurs Français," and by Charles Estancelin in "Navigateurs Normands." But other historians affirm that Pinzón had not navigated for years when, being called to Rome on business, he heard of the projects of Columbus, and made inquiries at the Holy Office. There he learned of the tithes that had been paid to the holy see before the beginning of the 15th century by a country named Vinland, and saw charts that had been made by the Norman explorers, after which he resolved to trust Columbus.

 

On his return to Spain he was consulted by Queen Isabella's advisers on Columbus's schemes, and gave a favorable answer, which greatly aided the Genoese navigator, and when Columbus obtained permission to arm three ships, Pinzón provided an eighth of the expenses. He took command of the caravel "La Pinta," but from the first showed his desire to rival Columbus, always sailing in advance of the other ships and refusing to obey the admiral.

 

When land was seen, Pinzón pretended to have been the first to discover it, and a Te Deum was sung on board his ship. On 21 November, 1492, he separated from the expedition off Cuba for the purpose of taking possession of the treasures that were to be found in that island, according to the natives.

 

When he again met Columbus, on his return voyage in January, 1493, near Cape Monte Cristo, he attributed his parting company to stress of weather, and the admiral feigned to believe his excuses.

 

On the homeward journey he separated from Columbus again in a storm off the Azores, and made all possible sail for the purpose of arriving before the admiral and claiming the discovery; but he was carried by a hurricane to Galicia, where he was detained several days, and asked by letter an audience from the king. He arrived in Palos on the evening of the same day with the admiral and set out immediately for Madrid, but was met on his way by a messenger who forbade his appearance at court. Anger, envy, and resentment shattered his health, and he died a few weeks later in Palos de Moguer.

 

--His brother, Vicente Yañez Pinzón, Spanish navigator, born in Palos de Moguer about 1460; died there about 1524, provided also an eighth of the expenses for the expedition of Colmnbus, and was appointed commander of the caravel "La Niña." Unlike his brother, he was always faithful to the admiral, and when the flagship "Santa Maria" was wrecked, 24 December, 1492, off the coast of Hispaniola, he rescued Columbus, who embarked upon Pinzón's vessel. According to Gomara, he accompanied Columbus in his second and third voyages to the New World; but other historians dispute this.

 

In 1499, having obtained concession for new discoveries, he armed four caravels in partnership with his nephew, Arias Martin, and sailed from Palos de Moguer, 13 November, 1499. Steering to the southward, he crossed the equinoctial line, lost sight of the North Star, and on 20 January, 1500, discovered land, being thus the first to discover Brazil, and naming the Cape Santa Maria de la Consolación (now Cape St. Agustinho). He landed with a notary and witnesses to take possession of the country for the king of Spain, but, being attacked by warlike Indians, re-embarked, and, coasting to the northwest, discovered the mouth of the Amazon, which he called Santa Maria de la Mar Dulce, and continued to explore the coast to the Gulf of Pavia. He arrived in Spain on 30 September after a disastrous homeward voyage, in which he lost two ships and all his fortune.

 

In 1506 he associated himself with Juan Diaz de Solis (q. v .) for the discovery of a passage from the Atlantic to the Indian ocean, and after landing on the coast of Honduras, in the island of Guanaja, they entered the Gulf of Mexico and discovered Yucatan and the Bay of Campeache, which they called Natividad. On his return he was summoned to court to consult with Americo Vespucci upon new discoveries to be made.

 

Again, in association with Solis, he went in 1508 on a new expedition to South America, and coasted the shores of Brazil from Cape St. Agustinho to latitude 40. S. He quarreled with Solis, and on their return to Seville in 1509 they were not received with favor. Solis was imprisoned, and Pinzón escaped punishment only on account of his long services. After that time he gave up navigation and settled in Palos de Moguer. Pinzon's descendants exist in Huelva and Moguer, and they have always been navigators. He wrote a relation of his explorations, which is preserved among the manuscripts in the archives of Simancas.

 

--Another brother, Francisco Martin Pinzon, born in Palos de Moguer about 1462; died at sea in July, 1500, served as a pilot under his brother, Martin Alonso Pinzón, in the expedition of 1492, and was likewise hostile to Columbus. After the death of his elder brother he became the managing partner of the business firm in Moguer, and, having reconciled himself with his brother, Vicente Yañez Pinzón, he was attached as pilot to the expedition of 1499. During the homeward journey he commanded one of the two ships that went down in a hurricane off Hispaniola, and was lost with all his crew.

 

--Their nephew, Arias Martin Pinzón, Spanish navigator, born in Palos de Moguer in 1465 ; died there in 1510, was the only son of an elder brother, and was already a pilot of repute at the time of the expedition of Columbus. He embarked as such on board "La Niña," was a stanch supporter of Columbus during the voyage, and often took the admiral's part against Martin Alonso Pinzón, his uncle and former guardian.

 

Arias accompanied Columbus also in his second and third voyages to America, and in 1499 obtained, with his uncle, Vicente Yañez Pinzón, permission to make new discoveries. Stress of weather separated him for some time from the latter, but they joined again, toward the close of January, 1500, off Cape St. Agustinho, and they sailed in company to the mouth of the Amazon, when they parted again, Vicente steering for the Guiana coast, while Arias made sail to the southward along the coast of Brazil. It is probable that he advanced as far as the present Bay of Rio Janeiro.

 

In the Gulf of Paria he fell in again with Vicente Yatiez Pinzón. During the following years he established a trade between Moguer and Cuba, Hispaniola, and the other American possessions, in which he made a large fortune. In 1507 and 1509 he accompanied the expeditions of his uncle, Vicente, and Solis, which proved unfortunate. Several historians assert that Arias Pinzón wrote a narrative of his travels which is preserved among the manuscripts of the Escorial; but this has not been proved.

 

 

 

 

PIPER, Richard Upton, physician, born in Stratham, New Hampshire, 3 April, 1818. He was graduated at Dartmouth medical school in 1840, and now (1888) practices his profession in Chicago, Illinois. Besides contributing to various medical periodicals, he has published a treatise on "Operative Surgery," illustrated with about 2,000 drawings by the author (Boston, 1852), and "The Trees of America" (4 parts, 1857, incomplete). He also drew the illustrations for Maclise's "Surgical Anatomy."

 

 

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia by John Looby, Copyright © 2001 StanKlos.comTM

 

PINZON, Martin Alonso (pin-thone'), Spanish navigator, born in Palos de Moguer in 1441; died there in 1493. He was descended from a family of seamen, and became an able pilot, but retired from active service and was the senior partner of the firm of Pinzon Brothers, ship-builders at Palos de Moguer. According to Francis Parkman in his "Pioneers of France in the New World," Pinzon sailed on board the vessel of one Cousin, a navigator of Dieppe, in 1488, and they were on the coast of Africa when their vessel was forced by storms far to the southwest, where they descried an unknown hind and discovered the mouth of a mighty river. On the return voyage Pinzon's conduct became so mutinous that Cousin made complaint to the admiralty, and the offender was dismissed from the maritime service of the town, communicating on his return to Spain the discovery to Columbus. The same fact is cited by Leon Gudrin in "Navigateurs Frangais," and by Charles Estancelin in "Navigateurs Normands." But other historians affirm that Pinzon had not navigated for years when, being called to Rome on business, he heard of the projects of Columbus, and made inquiries at the holy office. There he learned of the dimes and tithes that had been paid to the holy see before the beginning of the 15th century by a country named Vinland, and saw charts that had been made by the Norman explorers, after which he resolved to trust Columbus. On his return to Spain he was consulted by Queen Isabella's advisers on Columbus's schemes, and gave a favorable answer, which greatly aided the Genoese navigator, and when Columbus obtained permission to arm three ships, Pinzon provided an eighth of the expenses. He took command of the caravel " La Pinta," but from the first showed his desire to rival Columbus, always sailing in advance of the other ships and refusing to obey the admiral. When land was seen, Pinzon pretended to have been the first to discover it, and a Te Deum was sung on board his ship. On 21 November, 1492, he separated from the expedition off Cuba for the purpose of taking possession of the treasures that were to be found in that island, according to the natives. When he again met Columbus, on his return voyage in January, 1493, near Cape Monte Cristo, he attributed his parting company to stress of weather, and the admiral feigned to believe his excuses. On the homeward journey he separated from Columbus again in a storm off the Azores, and made all possible sail for the purpose of arriving before the admiral and claiming the discovery; but he was carried by a hurricane to Galicia, where he was detained several days, and asked by letter an audience from the king. He arrived in Palos on the evening of the same day with the admiral and set out immediately for Madrid, but was met on his way by a messenger who forbade his appearance at court. Anger, envy, and resentment shattered his health, and he died a few weeks later in Palos de Moguer.--His brother, Yieente Yaf, ez, Spanish navigator, born in Palos de Moguer about 1460; died there about 1524, provided nlso an eighth of the expenses for the expedition of Colmnbus, and was appointed commander of the caravel "La Nina." Unlike his brother, he was always faithful to the admiral, and when the flagship "Santa Maria " was wrecked, 24 December, 1492, off the coast of Hispaniola, he rescued Columbus, who embarked upon Pinzon's vessel. According to Gomara, he accompanied Columbus in his second and third voyages to the New World ; but other historians dispute this. In 1499. having obtained concession for new discoveries, he armed four caravels in partnership with his nephew, Arias Martin, and sailed from Palos de Moguer, 13 November, 1499. Steering to the southward, he crossed the equinoctial line, lost sight of the north star, and on 20 January, 1500, descried land, being thus the first to discover Brazil, and naming the Cape Santa Maria de la Consolacion (now Cape St. Agustinho). He landed with a notary and witnesses to take possession of the country for the king of Spain, but, being attacked by warlike Indians, re-embarked, and. coasting to the northwest, discovered the mouth of the Amazon, which he called Santa Maria de la Mar Dulce, and continued to explore the coast to the Gulf of Pavia. He arrived in Spain on 30 September after a disastrous homeward voyage, in which he lost two ships and all his fortune. In 1506 he associated himself with Juan Diaz de Solis (q. v, .) for the discovery of a passage from the Atlantic to the Indian ocean, and after landing on the coast of Honduras, in the island of Guanaja, they entered the Gulf of Mexico and discovered Yucatan and the Bay of Campeachy, which they called Natividad. On his return he was summoned to court to consult with Americo Vespucci upon new discoveries to be made. Again, in association with Solis, he went in 1508 on a new expedition to South America, and coasted the shores of Brazil from Cape St. Agustinho to latitude 40. S. He quarrelled with Solis, and on their return to Seville in 1509 they were not received with favor. Solis was imprisoned, and Pinzon escaped punishment only on account of his long services. After that time he gave up navigation and settled in Palos de Moguer. Pinzon's descendants exist in Huelva and Moguer, and they have always been navigators. He wrote a relation of his explorations, which is preserved among the manuscripts in the archives of Simancas.--Another brother, Francisco Martin, born in Palos de Moguer about 1462; died at sea in July, 1500, served as a pilot under his brother, Martin Alonso, in the expedition of 1492, and was likewise hostile to Columbus. After the death of his elder brother he became the managing partner of the business firm in Moguer, and, having reconciled himself with his brother, Vieente Yatiez, he was attached as pilot to the expedition of 1499. During the homeward journey he commanded one of the two ships that went down in a hurricane off Hispaniola, and was lost with all his crew.--Their nephew, Arias Martin, Spanish navigator, born in Palos de Moguer in 1465 ; died there in 1510, was the only son of an elder brother, and was already a pilot of repute at tile time of the expedition of Columbus. He embarked as such on board " La Nifia," was a stanch supporter of Columbus during the voyage, and often took the admiral's part against Martin Alonso, his uncle and former guardian. Arias accompanied Columbus also in his second and third voyages to America, and in 1499 obtained, with his uncle, Vicente YaSez, permission to make new discoveries. Stress of weather separated him for some time from the latter, but they joined again, toward the close of January, 1500, off Cape St. Agustinho, and they sailed in company to the mouth of the Amazon, when they parted again, Vicente steering for the Guiana coast, while Arias made sail to the southward along the coast of Brazil. It is probable that he advanced as far as the present Bay of Rio Janeiro. In the Gulf of Paria he fell in again with Vicente YaSez. During the following years he established a trade between Moguer and Cuba, Hispaniola, and the other American possessions, in which he madea large fortune. In 1507 and 1509 he accompanied the expeditions of his uncle, Vicente, and Solis, which proved unfortunate. Several historians assert that Arias Pinzon wrote a narrative of his travels which is preserved among the manuscripts of the Escoriai ; but this has not been proved. PIPER, Richard Upton, physician, born in Stratham, New Hampshire, 3 April, 1818. He was graduated at Dartmouth medical school in 1840, and now (1888) practises his profession in Chicago, Illinois Besides contributing to various medical periodicals, he has published a treatise on" Operative Surgery," illustrated with about 2,000 drawings by the author (Boston, 1852), and " The Trees of America" (4 parts, 1857, incomplete). He also drew the illustrations for Maclise's " Surgical Anatomy."

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

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