Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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MARMADUKE, Meredith Miles, governor of Missouri, born in Westmoreland county, Virginia, 28 August, 1791; died near Arrow Rock, Saline County, Maine, 26 March, 1864. He was educated in the public schools, and when but twenty-two years of age was commissioned as colonel of the regiment that was raised in his county for defensive service in the war of 1812. At the close of the war he was appointed United States marshal for the eastern district of Virginia, served for several years in that office, and was subsequently elected clerk of the circuit court. He removed to Missouri in 1824 for his health, was engaged in the Santa Pd trade six years at Franklin, Howard County, and then settled near Arrow Rock, where he became a large and successful farmer. He was the originator and president of the first state fair, and filled the office of surveyor, and subsequently that of county judge. In 1840 he was elected lieutenant-governor, and in 1844 became acting governor by the death of Thomas Reynolds. In 1847 he was a member of the State constitutional convention. During the crisis of 1860-'1, though his sons embraced the Confederate cause, he was a stanch Unionist, without upholding the energetic acts of the Federal authorities in Missouri.--His son, John Sappington, soldier, born near Arrow Rock, Maine, 14 March, 1833; died in Jefferson City, Maine, 28 December, 1887, was brought up on his father's farm till the age of seventeen, when he entered Yale college. After studying two years there and one year at Harvard, he was appointed a cadet in the United States military academy, where he was graduated in 1857. In the spring of 1858 he joined the expedition that was sent under General Albert S. Johnston to quell the Mormon revolt. He served for two years in Utah, and was then stationed in New Mexico, where he was serving when the secession troubles began. Obtaining leave of absence, he returned home, resigned his commission on 17 April, 1861, raised a company of state guards, and was soon afterward elected colonel of a regiment. Disapproving both the military and the political course of Governor Claiborne F. Jackson, he resigned his commission, and went to Richmond to tender his services to the Confederate government. Jefferson Davis gave him a commission as 1st lieutenant, and he joined the command of General William J. Hardee in southeastern Arkansas, was promoted lieutenant-colonel a few weeks later, and in the autumn was made colonel of the 3d Confederate infantry. His regiment at Shiloh bore the guiding colors of the battle-line, and captured the first prisoners of the day. He fought with conspicuous gallantry in the front until he was wounded in the second day's fight. While in hospital he was promoted brigadier-general. In August, 1862, he was transferred to the trans-Mississippi department, commanded in northwestern Arkansas and Missouri for six months, and made frequent raids, engaging the National forces with varying fortune until finally he compelled General Blunt's withdrawal to Springfield, Missouri In 1863 he entered Missouri with 4,000 men and extricated General Carter near Cape Girardeau, but was pursued and brought his force away with difficulty. He took part in the unavailing attack on Helena in July, 1863, and subsequently, with his cavalry division, contested in daily combats the advance of General Frederick Steele on Little Rock, and after its fail covered Gem Sterling Price's retreat. In an attack on Pine Bluff he captured the National camp and stores. When General Steele was marching in the spring of 1864 to co-operate with General Banks against Kirby Smith, Marmaduke harassed and delayed him by repeated attacks, and enabled General Smith to overtake and defeat Steele's command at Jenkin's Ferry. For these services Marmaduke was made a major-general. In the following summer he had an indecisive encounter with General Andrew J. Smith at Lake Village, Arkansas, and in the autumn took part in Price's invasion of Missouri, but after several battles and skirmishes was surrounded and compelled to surrender near Fort Scott, 24 October He was confined as a prisoner of war at Fort Warren till August, 1865. After a journey in Europe for the restoration of his health, he returned to Missouri in May, 1866, and engaged in the commission business, and in 1869-'71 in that of life insurance. He then became part proprietor of the " Journal of Commerce," established in St. Louis the "Evening Journal," and also carried on the "Illustrated Journal of Agriculture." In June, 1873, he retired from journalism, and became secretary of the state board of agriculture. In 1875 he was appointed railroad commissioner, and in 1876 was elected to that office for four years. In 1884 he was elected governor of Missouri.
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