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MIRAMON, Miguel (me-rah-mong), Mexican soldier, born in the city of Mexico, 29 September, 1832: died in Queretaro, 19 June, 1867. He was of French ancestry. He entered the government military academy in 1846, and participated with his classmates, in September, 1847, in the defenee of Molino del Rey and Chapultepec against the United States forces. He was wounded trod taken prisoner, but returned to the academy after the treaty of Guadalupe Iiidalgo, and completed his studies with honor. He entered the army in 1852, and served in the states of Mexico and Jalisco against local insurrections until General Juan Alvarez in 1854 declared in favor of the plan of Ayutla. Miramon served as captain in the expedition that was sent to the state of Guerrero in October of that year, taking a creditable part in the action of Temajalco. In July, 1855, he was promoted colonel, and when Alvarez, in October of that year, became president, Miramon was unwilling to serve under his for mer antagonist, and, while he was marching as second in command against the rebels of Zacapoaxtla in December, he imprisoned his chief and, joining the revolutionary party, occupied Puebla. A government was organized there under Haw y Tamariz (q. v.), but the city was taken in March, 1856, and Miramon was made prisoner, but he escaped, and, in October, with General Orihue-la, pronounced against Comonfort, and defended Puebla a second time during a siege of forty-three days. He escaped shortly before the surrender, and with his followers began a guerilla warfare, capturing Toluca in January, 1857. Being made prisoner soon afterward, he escaped in September, joined the insurgents of the south, and seized the town of Cuernavaea. When Zuloaga pronounced against Comonfort at Tacubaya on 17 December, and the fight in the streets of Mexico began, Miramon hastened thither and took part against the government till Comonfort left the capital on 21 January, 1858. Zulo-aga, becoming president, promoted Miramon brigadier-general, and in the ensuing three years' "war of reform" the latter took an active part with the reactionary or Church party. After the death of Osol-lo, Miramon became the leader of the reactionary party, and defeated the Liberal forces in many engagements, notably at Ahualuleo in September, and Atequiza in December. When the government of Zuloaga was overthrown by the "plan de Navidad," 24 December, 1858, headed by General Robles Pezuela, the junta de notables, that convened in January, 1859, elected Miramon, who had just gained the victory of San Joaquin, provisional president, and recalled him from the interior. On his arrival in Mexico on 21 January he disapproved the revolution and reinstated Zuloaga, who resigned and appointed Miramon his substitute, and on 2 February the latter took charge of the executive. He first attempted to wrest Vera Cruz from the Liberal government, and invested the city on 16 February, but, he raised the siege on 29 March, and, to hide his failure, joined the forces of Leonardo Marquez (q. v.) in the hour of victory at Tacubaya on 11 April. But the Liberal government, by the law of the nationalization of church property, had cut off the principal resources of the Conservatives, and, as the Juarist forces were augmented, Miramon was forced to head the campaign against them in person. With G en. Tomas Mejias forces he defeated Santos Degollado's army at Estaneia de las Vacas on 13 November, 1859, and on 23 December he gained a victory over General Rocha at Tonila. He now decided to make a final effort to capture Vera Cruz, which he surrounded on 2 March, 1860, and, although two steamers, bringing supplies for him from Havana, were captured on 2 March at Anton Lizardi by the United States frigate "Saratoga," he bombarded the city from 15 to 20 March" but after a final and unsuccessful assault he raised the siege on 21 March, and returned to the capital. He attacked, defeated, and captured General Uruaga, who was besieging Guadalajara on 25 May. but suffered a defeat at Silao on 10 August, and after General Marquez's rout at Tolotlan on 10 November the capital was soon surrounded by Liberal forces, and the situation of the Conservative government became critical. Notwithstanding a partial success at San Bartolo on 1 December, and his surprise on 8 December of the city of Toluca, where he captured several Liberal officers, Miramon was soon forced to make a final effort to break through the lines of his assailants, and left the capital with his forces on 20 December, but on the 22d he was totally defeated at Calpulalpam by Gonzalez Ortega. He returned to Mexico on the 23d, and after the Liberal general had refused a capitulation fled, and, reaching the coast in safety, sailed on a French vessel for Europe. In January, 1862, when the allied forces occupied Vera Cruz, he attempted to return, but was not permitted to land, and went to Havana. After the installation of the regency he reached the capital from the American frontier on 28 July, 1863, to offer his services. They were not accepted, and he had to leave the country again. Afterward Maximilian accepted Miramon's offer, but, fearing that his popularity might embarrass the government, requested him to remain abroad to study Prussian military tactics. In November, 1866, he returned with Marquez to Mexico, and when Maximilian abandoned his intention of abdicating he was sent to the capital to take command of a division with which he marched at the close of the year toward Zacatecas. He was defeated by Escobedo (q. v.) at San Jacinto, 1 February, 1867, and retired to Queretaro, where he was one of the most able aids of Maximilian during the siege. He was taken prisoner, condemned to death, and shot with Mejia and the emperor, the latter yielding to him the place of honor.
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