Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum
   You are in: Museum of History >> Hall of North and South Americans >> Miguel Miramon





American’s Four United Republics: Discovery-Based Curriculum

For more information go to Historic.us

 

Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





Virtual American Biographies

Over 30,000 personalities with thousands of 19th Century illustrations, signatures, and exceptional life stories. Virtualology.com welcomes editing and additions to the biographies. To become this site's editor or a contributor Click Here or e-mail Virtualology here.



A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 





Click on an image to view full-sized

Miguel Miramon

MIRAMON, Miguel (me-rah-mong), Mexican soldier, born in the city of Mexico, 29 September, 1832: died in Queretaro, 19 June, 1867. He was of French ancestry. He entered the government military academy in 1846, and participated with his classmates, in September, 1847, in the defenee of Molino del Rey and Chapultepec against the United States forces. He was wounded trod taken prisoner, but returned to the academy after the treaty of Guadalupe Iiidalgo, and completed his studies with honor. He entered the army in 1852, and served in the states of Mexico and Jalisco against local insurrections until General Juan Alvarez in 1854 declared in favor of the plan of Ayutla. Miramon served as captain in the expedition that was sent to the state of Guerrero in October of that year, taking a creditable part in the action of Temajalco. In July, 1855, he was promoted colonel, and when Alvarez, in October of that year, became president, Miramon was unwilling to serve under his for mer antagonist, and, while he was marching as second in command against the rebels of Zacapoaxtla in December, he imprisoned his chief and, joining the revolutionary party, occupied Puebla. A government was organized there under Haw y Tamariz (q. v.), but the city was taken in March, 1856, and Miramon was made prisoner, but he escaped, and, in October, with General Orihue-la, pronounced against Comonfort, and defended Puebla a second time during a siege of forty-three days. He escaped shortly before the surrender, and with his followers began a guerilla warfare, capturing Toluca in January, 1857. Being made prisoner soon afterward, he escaped in September, joined the insurgents of the south, and seized the town of Cuernavaea. When Zuloaga pronounced against Comonfort at Tacubaya on 17 December, and the fight in the streets of Mexico began, Miramon hastened thither and took part against the government till Comonfort left the capital on 21 January, 1858. Zulo-aga, becoming president, promoted Miramon brigadier-general, and in the ensuing three years' "war of reform" the latter took an active part with the reactionary or Church party. After the death of Osol-lo, Miramon became the leader of the reactionary party, and defeated the Liberal forces in many engagements, notably at Ahualuleo in September, and Atequiza in December. When the government of Zuloaga was overthrown by the "plan de Navidad," 24 December, 1858, headed by General Robles Pezuela, the junta de notables, that convened in January, 1859, elected Miramon, who had just gained the victory of San Joaquin, provisional president, and recalled him from the interior. On his arrival in Mexico on 21 January he disapproved the revolution and reinstated Zuloaga, who resigned and appointed Miramon his substitute, and on 2 February the latter took charge of the executive. He first attempted to wrest Vera Cruz from the Liberal government, and invested the city on 16 February, but, he raised the siege on 29 March, and, to hide his failure, joined the forces of Leonardo Marquez (q. v.) in the hour of victory at Tacubaya on 11 April. But the Liberal government, by the law of the nationalization of church property, had cut off the principal resources of the Conservatives, and, as the Juarist forces were augmented, Miramon was forced to head the campaign against them in person. With G en. Tomas Mejias forces he defeated Santos Degollado's army at Estaneia de las Vacas on 13 November, 1859, and on 23 December he gained a victory over General Rocha at Tonila. He now decided to make a final effort to capture Vera Cruz, which he surrounded on 2 March, 1860, and, although two steamers, bringing supplies for him from Havana, were captured on 2 March at Anton Lizardi by the United States frigate "Saratoga," he bombarded the city from 15 to 20 March" but after a final and unsuccessful assault he raised the siege on 21 March, and returned to the capital. He attacked, defeated, and captured General Uruaga, who was besieging Guadalajara on 25 May. but suffered a defeat at Silao on 10 August, and after General Marquez's rout at Tolotlan on 10 November the capital was soon surrounded by Liberal forces, and the situation of the Conservative government became critical. Notwithstanding a partial success at San Bartolo on 1 December, and his surprise on 8 December of the city of Toluca, where he captured several Liberal officers, Miramon was soon forced to make a final effort to break through the lines of his assailants, and left the capital with his forces on 20 December, but on the 22d he was totally defeated at Calpulalpam by Gonzalez Ortega. He returned to Mexico on the 23d, and after the Liberal general had refused a capitulation fled, and, reaching the coast in safety, sailed on a French vessel for Europe. In January, 1862, when the allied forces occupied Vera Cruz, he attempted to return, but was not permitted to land, and went to Havana. After the installation of the regency he reached the capital from the American frontier on 28 July, 1863, to offer his services. They were not accepted, and he had to leave the country again. Afterward Maximilian accepted Miramon's offer, but, fearing that his popularity might embarrass the government, requested him to remain abroad to study Prussian military tactics. In November, 1866, he returned with Marquez to Mexico, and when Maximilian abandoned his intention of abdicating he was sent to the capital to take command of a division with which he marched at the close of the year toward Zacatecas. He was defeated by Escobedo (q. v.) at San Jacinto, 1 February, 1867, and retired to Queretaro, where he was one of the most able aids of Maximilian during the siege. He was taken prisoner, condemned to death, and shot with Mejia and the emperor, the latter yielding to him the place of honor.

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

Start your search on Miguel Miramon.


 

 


 


Unauthorized Site: This site and its contents are not affiliated, connected, associated with or authorized by the individual, family, friends, or trademarked entities utilizing any part or the subject's entire name. Any official or affiliated sites that are related to this subject will be hyper linked below upon submission and Evisum, Inc. review.

Copyright© 2000 by Evisum Inc.TM. All rights reserved.
Evisum Inc.TM Privacy Policy

Search:

About Us

 

 

Image Use

Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States of America by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday. , the United States of America: We The People Click Here

 

Childhood & Family

Click Here

 

Historic Documents

Articles of Association

Articles of Confederation 1775

Articles of Confederation

Article the First

Coin Act

Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

Emancipation Proclamation

Gettysburg Address

Monroe Doctrine

Northwest Ordinance

No Taxation Without Representation

Thanksgiving Proclamations

Mayflower Compact

Treaty of Paris 1763

Treaty of Paris 1783

Treaty of Versailles

United Nations Charter

United States In Congress Assembled

US Bill of Rights

United States Constitution

US Continental Congress

US Constitution of 1777

US Constitution of 1787

Virginia Declaration of Rights

 

Historic Events

Battle of New Orleans

Battle of Yorktown

Cabinet Room

Civil Rights Movement

Federalist Papers

Fort Duquesne

Fort Necessity

Fort Pitt

French and Indian War

Jumonville Glen

Manhattan Project

Stamp Act Congress

Underground Railroad

US Hospitality

US Presidency

Vietnam War

War of 1812

West Virginia Statehood

Woman Suffrage

World War I

World War II

 

Is it Real?



Declaration of
Independence

Digital Authentication
Click Here

 

America’s Four Republics
The More or Less United States

 
Continental Congress
U.C. Presidents

Peyton Randolph

Henry Middleton

Peyton Randolph

John Hancock

  

Continental Congress
U.S. Presidents

John Hancock

Henry Laurens

John Jay

Samuel Huntington

  

Constitution of 1777
U.S. Presidents

Samuel Huntington

Samuel Johnston
Elected but declined the office

Thomas McKean

John Hanson

Elias Boudinot

Thomas Mifflin

Richard Henry Lee

John Hancock
[
Chairman David Ramsay]

Nathaniel Gorham

Arthur St. Clair

Cyrus Griffin

  

Constitution of 1787
U.S. Presidents

George Washington 

John Adams
Federalist Party


Thomas Jefferson
Republican* Party

James Madison 
Republican* Party

James Monroe
Republican* Party

John Quincy Adams
Republican* Party
Whig Party

Andrew Jackson
Republican* Party
Democratic Party


Martin Van Buren
Democratic Party

William H. Harrison
Whig Party

John Tyler
Whig Party

James K. Polk
Democratic Party

David Atchison**
Democratic Party

Zachary Taylor
Whig Party

Millard Fillmore
Whig Party

Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party

James Buchanan
Democratic Party


Abraham Lincoln 
Republican Party

Jefferson Davis***
Democratic Party

Andrew Johnson
Republican Party

Ulysses S. Grant 
Republican Party

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party

James A. Garfield
Republican Party

Chester Arthur 
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party

Benjamin Harrison
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland 
Democratic Party

William McKinley
Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican Party

William H. Taft 
Republican Party

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic Party

Warren G. Harding 
Republican Party

Calvin Coolidge
Republican Party

Herbert C. Hoover
Republican Party

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party

Harry S. Truman
Democratic Party

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party

John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party

Lyndon B. Johnson 
Democratic Party 

Richard M. Nixon 
Republican Party

Gerald R. Ford 
Republican Party

James Earl Carter, Jr. 
Democratic Party

Ronald Wilson Reagan 
Republican Party

George H. W. Bush
Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

George W. Bush 
Republican Party

Barack H. Obama
Democratic Party

Please Visit

Forgotten Founders
Norwich, CT

Annapolis Continental
Congress Society


U.S. Presidency
& Hospitality

© Stan Klos

 

 

 

 


Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum