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POPE, Nathaniel, jurist, born in Louisville, Kentucky, 5 January, 1784; died in St. Louis, Missouri, 23 January, 1850. He was graduated at Transylvania college, Kentucky, in 1806, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began to practise at St. Genevieve, Missouri He removed to Vandalia, and afterward to Springfield, Illinois He was made secretary of the territory, 23 February, 1809, and subsequently he was chosen delegate to the 14th congress, taking his seat, 2 December, 1816. He was re-elected, and served until 4 December, 1818. He was register of the land-office at Edwardsville, Illinois, in 1818, and the same year was appointed United States judge for the district of Illinois, which office he held until his death. It was due to the action of Judge Pope in congress that the northern boundary of Illinois was moved from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan to 42. 30', thus adding the territory now included in the thirteen northern counties, and giving the new state its greatest lake port and the site of its most populous city. Pope county was named after him.--His son, John, soldier, born in Louisville, Kentucky, 16 March, 1822, was graduated at the United States military academy in 1842, and made brevet 2d lieutenant of engineers. He served in Florida in 1842-'4, and assisted in the survey of the northeast boundary-line between the United States and the British provinces. He was made 2d lieutenant, 9 May, 1846, and took part in the Mexican war, being brevetted 1st lieutenant for gallantry at Monterey, and captain for his services in the battle of Buena Vista. In 1849 he conducted the Minnesota exploring expedition, which demonstrated the practicability of the navigation of the Red river of the north by steamers, and in 1851-'3 he was engaged in topographical engineering service in New Mexico. The six years following he had charge of the survey of the route for the Pacific railroad, near the 32d parallel, and in making experiments to procure water on the Llano Estacado, or "Staked Plain," stretching between Texas and New Mexico, by means of artesian wells. On 1 July, 1856, he was commissioned captain for fourteen years' continuous service. In the political campaign of 1860 Captain Pope sympathized with the Republicans, and in an address on the subject of "Fortifications," read before a literary society at Cincinnati, he criticised the policy of President Buchanan in unsparing terms. For this he was court-martialed, but, upon the recommendation of Postmaster-General Joseph Holt, further proceedings were dropped, tie was still a captain of engineers when Sumter was fired upon, and he was one of the officers detailed by the war department to escort Abraham Lincoln to Washington. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers, 17 May, 1861, and placed in command first of the district of northern, and afterward of southwestern and central, Missouri. General Pope's operations in that state in protecting railway communication and driving out guerillas were highly successful. His most important engagement was that of the Black-water, 18 December, 1861, where he captured 1,300 prisoners, 1,000 stand of arms, 1,000 horses, 65 wagons, two tons of gunpowder, and a large quantity of tents, baggage, and supplies. This victory forced General Sterling Price to retreat below the Osage river, which he never again crossed. He was next intrusted by General Henry W. Halleck with the command of the land forces that co-operated with Admiral Andrew H. Foote's flotilla in the expedition against New Madrid and Island No. 10. He succeeded in occupying the former place, 14 March, 1862, while the latter surrendered on the 8th of the following month, when 6,500 prisoners, 125 .cannon, and 7,000 small arms, fell into his hands. He was rewarded for the capture of New Madrid by a commission as major-general of volunteers. As commander of the Army of the Mississippi, he advanced from Pittsburg landing upon Corinth, the operations against that place occupying the period from 22 April till 30 May. After its evacuation he pursued the enemy to Baldwin, Lee County, Mississippi At the end of June he was summoned to Washington, and assigned to the command of the Army of Virginia, comprised of Fremont's (afterward Sigel's), Banks's, and McDowell's corps. On 14 July he was commissioned brigadier-general in the regular army, on 9 August a division of his army, under General Nathaniel P. Banks, had a severe engagement with the Confederates, commanded by General Thomas J. Jackson, at Cedar mountain. For the next fifteen days General Pope, who had been re, enforced by a portion of the Army of the Potomac, fought continuously a greatly superior force of the enemy under General Robert E. Lee, on the line of the Rappahannock, at Bristow station, at Groveton, at Manassas junction, at Gainesville, and at German-town, near Chantilly. General Pope then withdrew his force behind Difficult creek, between Flint hill and the Warrenton turnpike, whence he fell back within the fortifications of Washington, and on 3 September was, at his own request, relieved of the command of the Army of Virginia, and was assigned to that of the Department of the Northwest, where in a short time he completely checked the outrages of the Minnesota Indians. He retained this command until 30 January, 1865, when he was given charge of the military division of the Missouri, which, in June following, was made the Department of the Missouri, including all the northwestern states and territories. From this he was relieved 6 January, 1866. He has since had command successively of the 3d military district, comprising Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, under the first Reconstruction act, 1867-'8; the Department of the Lakes, 1868-'70; the Department of the Missouri, headquarters at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 1870-'84; and the Military Department of the Pacific from 1884 until he was retired, 16 March, 1886. In Washington, in December, 1862, he testified before a court-martial, called for the trill of General Fitz-John Porter (q. v.), who had been accused by him of misconduct before the enemy at the second battle of Manassas or Bull Run. General Pope was brevetted major-general, 13 March, 1865, "for gallant and meritorious services" in the capture of Island No. 10, and advanced to the full rank, 26 October, 1882. The fullest account of his northern Virginia campaign is to be found in the report of the congressional committee on the conduct of the war (Supplement, part xi., 1865). General Pope is the author of "Explorations from the Red River to the Rio Grande," in "Pacific Railroad Reports," vol. iii., and the "Campaign of Virginia, of July and August, 1862" (Washington, 1865).
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