Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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JUMONVILLE, N. Coulon de, French soldier, born in Picardy, France, about 1725; died near the site of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 27 May, 1754. He was educated as a soldier, and, coming to this country to join his brother, Coulon de Villiers, who held the rank of captain in the French army, he was sent in the spring of 1754 in charge of a small force to summon Washington to surrender the fort that he had built at Great Meadows, on the bank of the Ohio. The latter, being warned of his approach, joined forces with his Indian allies, and came upon the French suddenly at night. An action lasting a quarter of an hour ensued. On the side of the English one man was killed and three wounded, while ten of the French were killed, including De Jumonville, and twenty-one made prisoners. The dead were scalped by the Indians, and a scalp and a hatchet sent to each of the tribes of the Mialnis, with an invitation to join the Six Nations as allies of the English. The killing of Jumonville, who bore a summons to surrender, was considered in France and Canada as a violation of the law of nations. Jumonville's death was avenged early in the following July by his brother, Coulon de Villiers, who, at the head of 600 French and 100 Indians, appeared before the rude stockade that had been built at Great Meadows by Washington, and named Fort Necessity. After an engagement in which three of the French and thirty of the Virginians were killed, the American officer accepted terms of capitulation, by which he agreed to retire from the basin of the Ohio.
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